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Ekehammar, Bo
Publications (10 of 12) Show all publications
Berggren, M., Akrami, N., Bergh, R. & Ekehammar, B. (2019). Motivated Social Cognition and Authoritarianism Is It All About Closed-Mindedness?. Journal of Individual Differences, 40(4), 204-212
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Motivated Social Cognition and Authoritarianism Is It All About Closed-Mindedness?
2019 (English)In: Journal of Individual Differences, ISSN 1614-0001, E-ISSN 2151-2299, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 204-212Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The domain of motivated social cognition includes a variety of concepts dealing with a need to seek structure and avoid ambiguity, and several of these concepts are also powerful predictors of social attitudes, such as authoritarianism. It is possible though that these relations are due to certain facets reoccurring in the different scales. In this paper, we tested the notion that authoritarianism is predicted specifically by rigidity in beliefs (closed-mindedness), rather than broader cognitive styles. Thus, we initially identified items in the motivated social cognition scales that are specifically measuring closed-mindedness. These items included the closed-mindedness facet of the need for closure scale and items from intolerance of ambiguity and need for cognition. We used these items to predict right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, and their common factor authoritarianism (generalized). In line with our prediction, two studies showed that the motivated social cognition scales did not provide a significant prediction of authoritarianism beyond the closed-mindedness items. We conclude that the relation between motivated social cognition and authoritarianism is captured entirely by the former's closed-mindedness component.

Keywords
motivated social cognition, cognitive styles, closed-mindedness, generalized authoritarianism, SDO, RWA
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-178595 (URN)10.1027/1614-0001/a000293 (DOI)000507386000003 ()
Available from: 2020-02-03 Created: 2020-02-03 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Marini, M., Sriram, N., Schnabel, K., Maliszewski, N., Devos, T., Ekehammar, B., . . . Nosekl, B. A. (2013). Overweight People Have Low Levels of Implicit Weight Bias, but Overweight Nations Have High Levels of Implicit Weight Bias. PLOS ONE, 8(12)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overweight People Have Low Levels of Implicit Weight Bias, but Overweight Nations Have High Levels of Implicit Weight Bias
Show others...
2013 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although a greater degree of personal obesity is associated with weaker negativity toward overweight people on both explicit (i.e., self-report) and implicit (i.e., indirect behavioral) measures, overweight people still prefer thin people on average. We investigated whether the national and cultural context - particularly the national prevalence of obesity predicts attitudes toward overweight people independent of personal identity and weight status. Data were collected from a total sample of 338,121 citizens from 71 nations in 22 different languages on the Project Implicit website (https://implicit.harvard.edu/) between May 2006 and October 2010. We investigated the relationship of the explicit and implicit weight bias with the obesity both at the individual (i.e., across individuals) and national (i.e., across nations) level. Explicit weight bias was assessed with self-reported preference between overweight and thin people; implicit weight bias was measured with the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The national estimates of explicit and implicit weight bias were obtained by averaging the individual scores for each nation. Obesity at the individual level was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) scores, whereas obesity at the national level was defined as three national weight indicators (national BMI, national percentage of overweight and underweight people) obtained from publicly available databases. Across individuals, greater degree of obesity was associated with weaker implicit negativity toward overweight people compared to thin people. Across nations, in contrast, a greater degree of national obesity was associated with stronger implicit negativity toward overweight people compared to thin people. This result indicates a different relationship between obesity and implicit weight bias at the individual and national levels.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-100109 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0083543 (DOI)000328737700060 ()
Note

AuthorCount:24;

Available from: 2014-01-29 Created: 2014-01-27 Last updated: 2022-03-23Bibliographically approved
Ekehammar, B. & Akrami, N. (2012). Big Five Personality and Prejudice. In: N. M. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning: (pp. 452-454). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Big Five Personality and Prejudice
2012 (English)In: Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning / [ed] N. M. Seel, Springer, 2012, p. 452-454Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The article gives a brief presentation of the five-factor (Big-Five) personality theory and how the factors in this theory are related to prejudice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2012
Keywords
Big-Five, personality, prejudice
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-74486 (URN)10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_678 (DOI)978-1-4419-1427-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2012-03-14 Created: 2012-03-14 Last updated: 2022-05-10Bibliographically approved
Akrami, N. & Ekehammar, B. (2012). Prejudice: a reflection of core personality?. In: Dale W. Russell and Cristel Antonia Russell (Ed.), The psychology of prejudice: interdisciplinary perspectives on contemporary issues (pp. 39-50). New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prejudice: a reflection of core personality?
2012 (English)In: The psychology of prejudice: interdisciplinary perspectives on contemporary issues / [ed] Dale W. Russell and Cristel Antonia Russell, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2012, p. 39-50Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Book description: Is prejudice hard-wired or socially acquired? Is stigmatising the Other inevitable? Do we purposefully draw on stereotypes to provoke prejudice from others? Can we confront and correct our biases? From the judicial system to the marketplace, from women's intentional self-sexualisation to prison exonerees' stigma-by-association, this book offers a compelling and wide-ranging discussion and review of the latest scientific evidence of what prejudice is, how it emerges, what it does, and how the discrimination and stigma that ensue can be reduced.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2012
Keywords
prejudice, personality
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-84282 (URN)9781620816066 (ISBN)
Available from: 2012-12-20 Created: 2012-12-20 Last updated: 2022-02-24Bibliographically approved
Ekehammar, B. (2012). Socialpsykologi (1ed.). In: Philip Hwang, Ingvar Lundberg & Ann-Charlotte Smedler ( (Ed.), Grunderna i Vår tids psykologi (pp. 273-325). Stockholm: Natur och kultur
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Socialpsykologi
2012 (Swedish)In: Grunderna i Vår tids psykologi / [ed] Philip Hwang, Ingvar Lundberg & Ann-Charlotte Smedler (, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2012, 1, p. 273-325Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Bokinformation: Grunderna i vår tids psykologi ger en gedigen grund till den moderna psykologin. Några av Sveriges främsta forskare har här samlat den mest aktuella psykologiska vetenskapen utifrån ledande svensk och internationell forskning. Tack vare författarnas omfattande undervisningserfarenhet blir framställningen begriplig, levande och nyanserad. Resultatet är en heltäckande skildring av de byggstenar som behövs för att gå vidare inom psykologins olika tillämpningsfält.

Grunderna i vår tids psykologi är:

Människokunskap blir vetenskap

Biologisk psykologi

Motivation och emotion

Kognitionspsykologi

Utvecklingspsykologi

Personlighetspsykologi

Socialpsykologi

Boken riktar sig främst till psykologistuderande, men kan läsas på alla utbildningar där grundkunskaper i ämnet ingår. Den ger också en utmärkt introduktion till den som är nyfiken på vår tids psykologi.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2012 Edition: 1
Keywords
socialpsykologi
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-84283 (URN)978-91-27-13167-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2012-12-20 Created: 2012-12-20 Last updated: 2022-02-24Bibliographically approved
Bergh, R., Akrami, N. & Ekehammar, B. (2012). The compatibility of personality and social identity processes: the effect of gender identity on neuroticism. European Journal of Personality, 26(3), 175-181
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The compatibility of personality and social identity processes: the effect of gender identity on neuroticism
2012 (English)In: European Journal of Personality, ISSN 0890-2070, E-ISSN 1099-0984, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 175-181Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In an experimental study (N?=?186), we examined the effect of identity (gender versus personal) on participants' self-rated neuroticism and estimates of mean neuroticism for men and women. Self-rated neuroticism was measured before and after the identity salience manipulation. Following self-categorization theory, we predicted that identity salience would affect levels of self-rated neuroticism and the estimates (perceptions) of mean neuroticism for each sex. From a personality perspective, we expected substantial correlations between pre-manipulation and post-manipulation neuroticism scores in both identity conditions. The relation between participants' self-rated neuroticism and their estimates of mean neuroticism for their own sex was also examined. The effect of identity salience was unclear with regard to self-rated neuroticism levels, whereas the manipulation had apparent effects on estimated mean neuroticism levels for men and women. Also, self-rated neuroticism was found to predict estimates of mean neuroticism for men and women in the gender, but not personal, identity condition. Finally, in line with a personality perspective, the relative positions in self-rated neuroticism were highly stable in both conditions. The findings indicate a compatibility of self-categorization theory and personality perspectives and suggest that both are valuable to understand the changeability and stability of the self.

Keywords
Big Five personality, self-categorization theory, neuroticism, social identity, personality stability
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-80762 (URN)10.1002/per.851 (DOI)000302935800002 ()
Note

AuthorCount:3;

Available from: 2012-09-29 Created: 2012-09-27 Last updated: 2022-02-24Bibliographically approved
Bergh, R., Akrami, N. & Ekehammar, B. (2012). The Personality Underpinnings of Explicit and Implicit Generalized Prejudice. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3(5), 614-621
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Personality Underpinnings of Explicit and Implicit Generalized Prejudice
2012 (English)In: Social Psychological and Personality Science, ISSN 1948-5506, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 614-621Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The idea of prejudice as a tendency that can be generalized from one target to another and the personality–prejudice relationship have been widely examined using explicit measures. However, less is known about this tendency and its relation to personality for implicit prejudice measures, like the implicit association test (IAT). Three studies including explicit and corresponding implicit prejudice measures toward various target groups confirmed a generalized factor for both types of measures with a stronger common component for the explicit factor. Personality was significantly related to the explicit measures only. Also, the personality and prejudice measures were unrelated to explicit and implicit attitudes toward an irrelevant target which rules out potential method confound. These results indicate that explicit and implicit prejudice measures tap different psychological constructs relating differently to the individual’s self-reported personality. The findings have implications for the debate on whether IAT scores reflect personally endorsed attitudes.

Keywords
personality, generalized prejudice, implicit association test, cultural stereotypes, personal attitudes
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-80941 (URN)10.1177/1948550611432937 (DOI)000208936600013 ()
Note

The Swedish Research Council supported this research by grants to Nazar Akrami (2007-2315 & 2008—2319) and Bo Ekehammar (2008-2320).

Available from: 2012-10-03 Created: 2012-10-03 Last updated: 2022-02-24Bibliographically approved
Ekehammar, B. & Akrami, N. (2011). Fördomar - mer personligt än vi trott. Tvärsnitt (3-4), 28-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fördomar - mer personligt än vi trott
2011 (Swedish)In: Tvärsnitt, ISSN 0348-7997, no 3-4, p. 28-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [en]

This chapter gives a popular presentation of the theories and results from a research project supported by grants from the Swedish Research Council. Contrasting the explanatory power of social psychological versus personality theories for explaining prejudice, the empirical outcomes of the project show that personality variables most often outperform social-psychological variables. So, prejudice appears to be more based in core personality than most researchers in the area have thought.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Vetenskapsrådet, 2011
Keywords
personality, social psychology, prejudice
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-70443 (URN)
Note
The research has been supported by grants to Bo Ekehammar from the Swedish Research Council.Available from: 2012-01-20 Created: 2012-01-20 Last updated: 2022-02-24Bibliographically approved
Akrami, N., Ekehammar, B. & Bergh, R. (2011). Generalized Prejudice: Common and Specific Components. Psychological Science, 22(1), 57-59
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Generalized Prejudice: Common and Specific Components
2011 (English)In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 57-59Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This research examined the personality-prejudice relationship and whether personality and social psychological factors predict different aspects of prejudice. We proposed a distinction between a common component of prejudice that is mainly explained by personality and a specific component mainly explained by situational and group-specific variables. Whereas the former consists of the shared variance of prejudice toward different targets, the latter taps the variance that is unique to a certain type of prejudice. Statistically separating the two components of prejudice toward four target groups, we found that personality variables (Agreeableness and Openness to Experience) explained a substantial portion of the variance of the common but a small share of the specific component. We also found group membership (gender) to be more closely associated with the specific than the common component of sexism. The results support our proposed distinction and suggest that personality and social psychological variables explain distinct aspects of prejudice.

Keywords
generalized prejudice, common component, personality
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-55637 (URN)10.1177/0956797610390384 (DOI)000294708600012 ()
Note
The Swedish Research Council supported this research by grants to Nazar Akrami (2007-2315 and 2008-2319) and Bo Ekehammar (2008-2320).Available from: 2011-03-23 Created: 2011-03-23 Last updated: 2022-02-24Bibliographically approved
Akrami, N., Ekehammar, B. & Yang-Wallentin, F. (2011). Personality and Social Psychology Factors Explaining Sexism. Journal of Individual Differences, 32(3), 153-160
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Personality and Social Psychology Factors Explaining Sexism
2011 (English)In: Journal of Individual Differences, ISSN 1614-0001, E-ISSN 2151-2299, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 153-160Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research has almost exclusively examined sexism (negative attitudes toward women) from either a personality or a social-psychology perspective. In two studies (N = 379 and 182, respectively), we combine these perspectives and examine whether sexism is best explained by personality (Big-Five factors, social dominance orientation, and right-wing authoritarianism) or by social-psychological (group membership and group identification) variables - or by a combination of both approaches. Causal modeling and multiple regression analyses showed that, with the present set of variables, sexism was best explained by considering the combined influence of both personality- and social-psychology constructs. The findings imply that it is necessary to integrate various approaches to explain prejudice.

Keywords
Big Five personality, social identification, right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation. sexism
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-66626 (URN)10.1027/1614-0001/a000043 (DOI)000292656300005 ()
Note
authorCount :3Available from: 2011-12-21 Created: 2011-12-20 Last updated: 2022-02-24Bibliographically approved
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