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Persson, Christian
Publications (10 of 20) Show all publications
Apéria, T. & Persson, C. (2018). The sustainable brand equity: a retail study measuring sustainable brand equity. In: Global marketing conference proceedings: . Paper presented at 2018 Global Marketing Conference, Tokyo, Japan, July 26-29, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The sustainable brand equity: a retail study measuring sustainable brand equity
2018 (English)In: Global marketing conference proceedings, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Aim Research in the Swedish retail sector 2017, shows that 37% of the public in Sweden has attitudes and behavior that make them part of the Lifestyle of Health and Sustainability group (Lohas). Lohas is a method (see Lohas.se) to measure sustainable living in a global context (Swedish Sustainability Ranking 2017). This make Sweden in the forefront. Furthermore, the Swedish government has issued a new law (entered into force in 2017) that demands Swedish companies with more than 250 employees or a certain turnover to annually report their sustainability efforts and how it connects to their business model. This is the background for our study investigating different industry sectors in Sweden. In this environment, retailers such as IKEA, Apoteket, Max Burger, Clas Ohlson, and H&M, followed by others, have gained recognition regarding their strong brands as well as good practice within sustainability. Sustainability has recently become more relevant to study. In Sweden repeated surveys, (2004-2017), have shown that Swedish retailers are perceived as the most reputable and sustainable of all companies. What is the background that makes retailers so trusted and sustainable among the general public and customers in Sweden? The purpose of this paper is to present and analyze the underlying factors which give retailers in Sweden such a high sustainability scores over time i.e. what factors are important to achieve sustainable brand equity in the Swedish retail sector. A detailed comparison will be made of two large surveys carried out in 2016 and 2017.

Design/methodology/approach This paper explores the branding framework Customer-Based Brand Equity as well as Points of Difference (POD) and Points of Parity (POP) in a projective retailer sustainability perspective, Keller, Apéria and Georgson (2012). The overall customer brand equity framework is developed by Keller (1993). PODs is defined as unique associations, strong and favorable, linked to a brand. POPs are associations that can be shared with other brands, Keller, Sternthal, and Tybout (2002). Ailawadi and Keller (2004) discuss the importance of measuring retailer brand equity. According to the researchers brand equity has been one of the most challenging and important issues for both academics and managers. The chosen framework and the analysis for the study is the corporate brand level. A sustainability index, developed by Apéria, has been developed and tested during the period 2015-2017. The sustainability index measures four dimensions of sustainability: environment/climate, society/ethics, longterm/future perspective, and openness (see figure 1). The index is inspired by the Triple bottom line approach. The data comes from the Swedish Sustainability Ranking, the largest survey on sustainability in Sweden. More than 18,000 online surveys were carried out in 2016 and 25,000 surveys carried out in 2017. The panelists participating in the survey were recruited in order to be representative of the Swedish general public, age 18-74 years. 190 well-known and visible consumer companies were measured in 2016 and 200 companies and organizations in 2017. These companies were selected because they are well-known, salient and represent important categories from a consumer point of view. Our view of salience is based on Ehrenberg, Barnard and Scriven (1997). A pre-study was carried out in 2015 in order to understand consumer criterias for choice of retailer. In 2016, 32 retailers where measured in a specific retailer frame of reference. 4,225 surveys where carried out among general public who participated in the study. In the 2017 survey, 35 retailers were measured and 3,416 surveys were carried out, also in a retailer frame of reference targeting the general public. All respondents taking part in the study initially ranked companies with product, brand, and sustainability attributes. The respondents ranked these retailers with approximately 35 brand- attitude questions (Likert scale from 1-7). In the second part of the interview each respondent also indirectly, through a projective approach, described the retailer. The perspective of reputation and sustainability metrics has traditionally been used in a strict rational point of view. One example of reputation metrics is the RepTrak model described by Fombrun, Ponzi, and Newburry (2015), and van Riel (2012). Chun and Davies (2004) and J. Aaker (1997) have also discussed corporate character and brand personality from a rational point of view. Ailawadi and Keller (2004) have pointed out that brand personality as an area deserves greater attention from research. The authors of this article argue that a complementary perspective is needed to fully understand how consumers evaluate corporate brands and sustainability and the complexity behind this process. The authors propose to add emotional components in the evaluation, as a complement to the traditional rational view. The proposed way to understand the emotional side of a corporate brand is to use projective techniques (Apéria 2001, Apéria and Back 2004, Keller, Apéria and Georgson 2012). An advantage of projective techniques is that they may elicit responses that respondents may be unwilling or unable to give by traditional interview methods. In this retailer study we used projective techniques in order to explore the more emotional aspects of the retailers.

Findings The results from the analyze presents Swedish retailers as representing the most sustainable of all company categories in Sweden. During a period between 2004-2017 the retail category have been in top positions of the Swedish reputation and sustainability ranking, measured in a longitudinal study. Apoteket, The Body Shop and Clas Ohlson have been ranked as number one, one time each. While IKEA has been number one eleven times during the period. During the last two years, 2016 and 2017 IKEA was ranked as number one, based on the sustainability index. The analyze has shown that the highly sustainable retailers operating in the Swedish market primarily are characterized by strong brands as well as strong perceptions of sustainability. An interesting example is the local Swedish fast-food company Max Burgers that strongly outperforms McDonald´s both as a brand as well on sustainability. Successful retailers have different personalities, and archetypes compared with other corporate categories. The analysis reveals that the strongest retailers with a high sustainability index are characterized by having strong brand personalities. Furthermore, the analysis also reveals that the archetypes characterizing these retailers are we-oriented archetypes such as: ordinary/familiar, stable/down to earth, but also the ego-oriented archetype focused/specialist. Examples of retailers with a strong brand personality are IKEA, The Body Shop, Stadium, ICA, Zara and H&M. When we compare the data from the study 2016 with 2017 we see the same results. Our results from both studies indicate that local retailers are more positively evaluated than international. We-orientated brands score higher than ego-orientated. Some retail categories are perceived better than others are. Examples of strong retail categories are pharmacies, furniture, food, and sport stores and weak retailer categories are hamburger restaurants, consumer electronics and telecom stores. However, there is always an opportunity for a retailer to be stronger than the category they represent. One example, earlier mentioned is the local hamburger chain Max Burgers that strongly outperforms international competitors such as Burger King and McDonald´s, when we compare their sustainability indexes. The results indicate that both rational and emotional factors constitute an important part of the Sustainable Brand Equity Model. This new model (see figure 2) has been developed and tested during surveys 2015-2017 by one of the authors as a part of the Swedish Sustainability Ranking. Central components of the model are sustainability indexes, corporate brand personality, brand associations meeting need segments which lead to brand loyalty and trust capital. Finally, our survey shows that retailers needs to be strong in both brand and sustainability. It´s not enough to only excel in sustainability.

Research limitations/implications The Sustainability survey was carried out both in 2016 and 2017 in a retailer frame of reference including different retailers from different sectors. The authors recognize that Swedes rank retailers as the most reputable and sustainable category of companies every year. In different countries the general public has different opinions about which companies they found most reputable (Apéria, Simcic Brønn, and Schultz, 2004).

Originality/value The authors compares the chosen 32 retailers studied in 2016 with 35 retailers studied in 2017 with the same method. In both surveys we used both rational questions and emotional projective questions in order to understand the retailers in-depth. In both surveys a sustainability index was used in order to rank the retailers.

Keywords
Sustainable Brand Equity Model, Retail Brand Equity, Sustainability index, Corporate Brand Personality, and Retailer Points of Parity (POP) and Points of Difference (POD)
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-163333 (URN)10.15444/GMC2018.10.05.02 (DOI)
Conference
2018 Global Marketing Conference, Tokyo, Japan, July 26-29, 2018
Available from: 2018-12-21 Created: 2018-12-21 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Persson, C. & Wallin, E. (2017). Engineering and business implications of ontologies – a proposal for a Minimum Viable Ontology. In: : . Paper presented at 13th Conference on Automation Science and Engineering, Xi'an, China, August 20-23, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Engineering and business implications of ontologies – a proposal for a Minimum Viable Ontology
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Business Administration Robotics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-163329 (URN)
Conference
13th Conference on Automation Science and Engineering, Xi'an, China, August 20-23, 2017
Available from: 2018-12-21 Created: 2018-12-21 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Aperia, T. & Persson, C. (2016). Why are Swedish retail corporate brands so reputable? a comparative study of sustainable brand equity i Sweden. In: 2016 Global Marketing Conference at Hong Kong Proceedings: . Paper presented at 2016 Global Marketing Conference at Hong Kong, China, July 21-24, 2016 (pp. 1028-1031).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why are Swedish retail corporate brands so reputable? a comparative study of sustainable brand equity i Sweden
2016 (English)In: 2016 Global Marketing Conference at Hong Kong Proceedings, 2016, p. 1028-1031Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Swedish retailers such as IKEA, H&M and Clas Ohlson, followed by others, have gained international recognition. In Sweden repeated surveys, (2004-2015), have shown that Swedish retailers are perceived as the most reputable companies of all sectors in Sweden. What is the background that makes Swedish retailers so reputable among consumers?

The purpose of this paper is to present and analyze the underlying factors which give Swedish retailers such a high reputation scores over time i.e. what factors are important to achieve sustainable brand equity in the retail sector.

Keywords
sustainable brand equity, retail corporate reputation, retail brand personality, and retail Point of Parity (POP) and Point of Difference (POD).
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-163335 (URN)10.15444/GMC2016.07.07.01 (DOI)
Conference
2016 Global Marketing Conference at Hong Kong, China, July 21-24, 2016
Available from: 2018-12-21 Created: 2018-12-21 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Mensonen, A., Persson, C., Stafseng, T., Vatrapu, R. & Kaldalons, Ö. (2013). Novel AR solutions in media: customer perception of augmented reality in media applications – possibilities for new service innovations. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Novel AR solutions in media: customer perception of augmented reality in media applications – possibilities for new service innovations
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2013 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A project titled ‘Customer Perception of Augmented Reality (AR) in Media Applica-tions – Possibilities for New Service Innovations’was carried out, with participantsfrom all of the Nordic countries. The project addressed the fact that the magazineand newspaper business is set to change dramatically as printed products en-counter two specific challenges: a) increasing competition from other media and b)changes in media-consumption habits caused by growth in the use of smartphonesand tablets, such as instant access and digital delivery. The changing marketenvironment for print-media products also opens new opportunities for using tech-nologies such as AR to create innovative applications and hence add businessvalue. To investigate the opportunities for service development within this area, weconducted a study of the state of the art to review the theoretical concepts relevantfor better understanding of the macro-level societal trends and business potentialof augmented reality for print products. Selected cases of augmented reality forprint products were then presented.The next phase of the project consisted of a Nordic empirical study of user per-ceptions of AR applications. Focus-group interviews were used to collect partici-pants’ statements about the use of AR technology. These statements were thenranked by means of the Q-sort method. Factor-analysis methods were appliedwith the objective of understanding the similarities among participants’ answers.The results indicated that AR was seen as useful, beneficial, attractive, interesting,and fascinating and as possessing the ‘wow’ factor. Some considered AR’s usagetime-consuming, while others deemed it time-saving. Another finding is that stand-ards seem to be lacking both for the user interface and on the business-handlingside. Participants saw AR as offering great possibility for innovation. People wouldlike to try the applications, and they would indeed find time for using them. Expec-tations set for AR applications are high.Stemming from the interview and Q-sort, an innovation workshop was organized forthe 19 industrial and academic partners of the project. The brain storming sessionaimed at producing new innovative service concept ideas of AR in printed media.Thirty four different ideas were generated in the workshop. The industrial partnerswere encouraged to select one idea for further development and produce a pilot.The pilots as well as the development process and experiences where presentedas a part of the end seminar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2013. p. 62
Series
VTT Technology, ISSN 2242-1211 ; 126
Keywords
augmented reality, users, new services, media
National Category
Human Aspects of ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-98577 (URN)978-951-38-8052-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-01-08 Created: 2014-01-08 Last updated: 2022-02-24Bibliographically approved
Pomering, A. & Persson, C. (2013). The Silos Estate: A systematic Approach To Sustainability Using The Sustainability Tourism Marketing Model. In: Fountain, Joanna; Moore, Kevin (Ed.), CAUTHE 2013: Tourism and Global Change: On the Edge of Something Big: Proceedings of the 23rd CAUTHE conference. Paper presented at CAUTHE 2013, 11-14 February 2013, New Zealand (pp. 627-628). Christchurch, N.Z
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Silos Estate: A systematic Approach To Sustainability Using The Sustainability Tourism Marketing Model
2013 (English)In: CAUTHE 2013: Tourism and Global Change: On the Edge of Something Big: Proceedings of the 23rd CAUTHE conference / [ed] Fountain, Joanna; Moore, Kevin, Christchurch, N.Z, 2013, p. 627-628Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to report on a single case study use of the sustainability tourism marketing model, as proposed by Pomering, Noble and Johnson (2011) in order to highlight the possibilities for tourism businesses to develop more sustainability-oriented products and guest experiences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Christchurch, N.Z: , 2013
Keywords
Case study, marketing, sustainable tourism, sustainability tourism marketing model
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-98574 (URN)9780864762832 (ISBN)
Conference
CAUTHE 2013, 11-14 February 2013, New Zealand
Available from: 2014-01-08 Created: 2014-01-08 Last updated: 2022-02-24Bibliographically approved
Pomering, A. & Persson, C. (2013). Young Travellers’ Dispositions Towards Sustainable Tourism Mobility information: An International Exploratory Analysis. In: Fountain, Joanna; Moore, Kevin (Ed.), CAUTHE 2013: Tourism and Global Change: On the Edge of Something Big. Paper presented at CAUTHE 2013. Christchurch, N.Z
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Young Travellers’ Dispositions Towards Sustainable Tourism Mobility information: An International Exploratory Analysis
2013 (English)In: CAUTHE 2013: Tourism and Global Change: On the Edge of Something Big / [ed] Fountain, Joanna; Moore, Kevin, Christchurch, N.Z, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The tourism industry’s contribution to climate change is significant, especially due to air travel. The purpose of this paper is to explore psychological determinants of more sustainable tourism mobility decision-making. We present the findings from an exploratory study of young travellers, from Australia and Sweden into the links between attitude to anthropogenic climate change (AAcc) and demand for information about the environmental impacts of personal travel; and tourism suppliers’ sustainability orientations. We find AAcc related to a number of key sustainable tourism mobility information demand variables, for example, desire for more information about sustainability on travel companies’ websites, as presented in Table 1. Implications and further research directions are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Christchurch, N.Z: , 2013
Keywords
Australia, exploratory study, sustainable tourism mobility, young travellers, Sweden
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-98573 (URN)9780864762832 (ISBN)
Conference
CAUTHE 2013
Available from: 2014-01-08 Created: 2014-01-08 Last updated: 2022-02-24Bibliographically approved
Persson, C., Lindqvist, U., Bjørn-Andersen, N., Krokan, A., Rasmussen, S., Bloch Rasmussen, L. & Kaldalóns, Ö. S. (2009). New Business Forms in e-Business and Media – e-Media. In: Iarigai 2009. Paper presented at Iarigai 2009.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New Business Forms in e-Business and Media – e-Media
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2009 (English)In: Iarigai 2009, 2009Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

It has been the scope of this study to create new service forms and business models for the border area between e-Business and Media (e-Media). The project was carried out by a Nordic consortium consisting of five research organisations and eight companies with financial support from the Nordic Innovation Centre (NICe).

 

The study first analyses the structural changes in the media and allied industries, i.e. content creation and advertising. Thereafter, a framework for innovations in e-Media is built up, together with a variety of business models. The framework is used to identify new, innovative service embryos for the e-Media sector. Finally eight new services are developed in industrial case studies.

 

The project has been carried out by a consortium consisting of five Nordic research organisations, which have relations to e-Business and the media sector, together with eight industrial partners from the media sector, software companies, and service providers.

 

The outcome of the project is an extensive description of innovation methods and business models for Nordic companies working in the media or e-Business sector or offering services over the net. The report also gives eight examples of more or less successfully exploited e-Media pilot cases.

National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-84333 (URN)
Conference
Iarigai 2009
Available from: 2012-12-20 Created: 2012-12-20 Last updated: 2022-02-24Bibliographically approved
Persson, C., Lindqvist, U., Niels, B.-A., Kaldalóns, Ö. S. & Krokan, A. (2008). New Business Forms in e-Business and Media “e-Media”. Vuorimiehentie: VTT
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New Business Forms in e-Business and Media “e-Media”
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2008 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In a preliminary study a Nordic network for e-Business has been established between the media industry, vendors, service providers and scientists. This network has performed this project with the scope to develop new new innovative service forms and products for this new business area called ”e-Media”, and to identify the value chains and new business models needed for this area.

The study first analyses the strucrural changes in the media and allied industries, i.e. content creation and advertising. Thereafter, a framework for innovations in e-Media is built together with a variety of business models. The framework is then used to identify new innovative service embryos for e-Media. Finally eight new services are exploited in industrial case studies.

The outcome of the project is an extensive description of innovation methods, business models, more than sixty innovation embryos for exploitation and eight examples of more or less successfully exploited e-Media pilot cases. The project also elucidates the huge business potential of e-Media.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Vuorimiehentie: VTT, 2008. p. 136
Keywords
e-Business, e-Media, e-Business and Media, Business models, Value chain, Innovations, Media services
National Category
Media and Communications Human Aspects of ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-84327 (URN)978-951-38 (ISBN)1459-7683 (ISBN)
Available from: 2012-12-20 Created: 2012-12-20 Last updated: 2022-02-24Bibliographically approved
Persson, C. (2007).  Factors influencing the future of e-Commerce. In:  . Paper presented at IADIS 2007.
Open this publication in new window or tab >> Factors influencing the future of e-Commerce
2007 (English)In:  , 2007Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

After one decade of intense e-commerce activities, the Internet as a channel for commercial activities looks bright. Still there are important factors related to commercial activities on the Internet that have to be focused on since they will have a great influence on the future development or have not yet reached a satisfying level. In this reflective paper some of the most important of these factors are discussed in the light of recent research.

National Category
Human Aspects of ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-84259 (URN)
Conference
IADIS 2007
Available from: 2012-12-19 Created: 2012-12-19 Last updated: 2022-02-24Bibliographically approved
Persson, C. (2005). Blås liv i den digitala radion. Sydsvenskan (21 mars)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Blås liv i den digitala radion
2005 (Swedish)In: Sydsvenskan, ISSN 1652-814X, no 21 marsArticle in journal, News item (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
National Category
Media and Communication Technology Human Aspects of ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-84385 (URN)
Available from: 2012-12-20 Created: 2012-12-20 Last updated: 2022-02-24Bibliographically approved
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