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Green, Erik
Publications (7 of 7) Show all publications
Green, E. (2010). State-led Agricultural Intensification and Labour Relations: The Case of Lilongwe Land Development Program in Malawi, 1968-1981. International Review of Social History, 55(3), 413-446
Open this publication in new window or tab >>State-led Agricultural Intensification and Labour Relations: The Case of Lilongwe Land Development Program in Malawi, 1968-1981
2010 (English)In: International Review of Social History, ISSN 0020-8590, E-ISSN 1469-512X, ISSN 0020-8590, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 413-446Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article deals with cash crop production and its impact on labour relations in postcolonial African peasant agriculture. The focus is on the Lilongwe Land Development Programme (1968–1981) in Malawi. The aim of the programme was to enable African farmers to increase yields and make them shift from the cultivation of tobacco and local maize to groundnuts and high-yielding varieties of maize. The programme failed to meet its goals, because of contradictory forces set in motion by the programme itself. The LLDP enabled a larger segment of farmers to engage in commercial agriculture, which caused a decline in supplies of local labourers ready to be employed on a casual or permanent basis. Increased commercial production was thus accompanied by a de-commercialization of labour relations, which hampered the scope for better-off farmers to increase yields by employing additional labourers. By using both written and oral sources, this article thus provides an empirical case that questions the conventional view that increased cash-crop production in twentieth-century rural Africa was accompanied by a commercialization of labour relations. It concludes that the history of rural labour relations cannot be grasped by simple linear models of historical change, but requires an understanding of local contexts, with a focus on farming systems and factors that determine the local supply of and demand for labour.

 

Abstract [fr]

Dans cet article, l’auteur évoque la production de la culture industrielle et son effet sur les relations de travail dans l’exploitation agricole de paysans dans l’Afrique postcoloniale. L’accent est mis sur le programme d’aménagement du territoire à Lilongwe au Malawi (LLDP, 1968–1981). Ce programme visait à permettre à des exploitants agricoles africains d’augmenter les rendements, et de faire passer les exploitants agricoles de la culture du tabac et de la culture locale du maïs à la culture de l’arachide et de variétés de maïs à rendement élevé. Le programme a manqué à atteindre ses objectifs, en raison de forces contradictoires déclenchées par le programme lui-même. Le LLDP a permis à une plus large section d’exploitants agricoles de pratiquer une agriculture commerciale, ce qui a entraîné un déclin de l’approvisionnement en ouvriers agricoles locaux disposés à être employés sur une base occasionnelle ou permanente. L’augmentation de la production commerciale est donc allée de pair avec une dé-commercialisation des relations de travail, ce qui a entravé la latitude des exploitants agricoles mieux placés d’augmenter les rendements en employant des ouvriers agricoles supplémentaires. Recourant à des sources tant écrites qu’orales, l’auteur présente ensuite un cas empirique qui remet en question l’idée conventionnelle selon laquelle la production accrue de la récolte industrielle dans l’Afrique rurale du vingtième siècle s’est accompagnée d’une commercialisation des relations de travail. Il conclut que l’histoire des relations agricoles ne peut pas être saisie par de simples modèles linéaires de changement historique, mais exige de comprendre les contextes locaux en s’axant sur les systèmes et facteurs d’exploitation agricole qui déterminent l’offre et la demande locales de main-d’œuvre.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge: Cambridge Journals, 2010
Keywords
State-led Agricultural Intensification, Labour Relations, Lilongwe, Land Development Program, Malawi
National Category
Economic History
Research subject
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-50601 (URN)10.1017/S0020859010000180 (DOI)
Available from: 2010-12-29 Created: 2010-12-29 Last updated: 2022-02-24Bibliographically approved
Green, E. (2008). Diversification or De-Agrarianization?: Income Diversification, Labor, and Processes of Agrarian Change in Southern and Northern Malawi, Mid-1930s to Mid-1950s. Agricultural History, 82(2)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diversification or De-Agrarianization?: Income Diversification, Labor, and Processes of Agrarian Change in Southern and Northern Malawi, Mid-1930s to Mid-1950s
2008 (English)In: Agricultural History, Vol. 82, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article investigates the links between market-oriented activities and subsistence production among peasant farmers in the Thyolo and Mzimba districts in Malawi, from the mid-1930s to the mid-1950s. The two districts were chosen because of their differences in terms of land-labor ratios, quality of soils, and structure of market engagement. Exploring the different paths of agrarian change in these two districts demonstrates that they were dependent on the structure of market engagement and its effects on the supply and flexibility of labor. African agricultural history is best understood when agricultural systems are viewed in connection to the overall economic activities of rural households. More simply put, the dynamics of agrarian change in rural Africa cannot be understood without linking such changes to the wider economy and their impact on local labor processes.

Keywords
Malawi, diversification, de-agrarianisation, labour, colonial
National Category
Agricultural Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-20482 (URN)
Available from: 2007-11-26 Created: 2007-11-26 Last updated: 2022-02-25Bibliographically approved
Green, E. & Jonsson, U. (2007). EU:s jordbrukspolitik och global fattigdomsbekämpning. Internationella Studier no. 1 (1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>EU:s jordbrukspolitik och global fattigdomsbekämpning
2007 (Swedish)In: Internationella Studier no. 1, no 1Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Keywords
EU, Afrika, handel, tillväxt
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-20483 (URN)
Available from: 2007-11-26 Created: 2007-11-26 Last updated: 2022-02-25Bibliographically approved
Green, E. (2007). Modern Agricultural History in Malaw: Perspectives on Policy Choices. African Studies Review, 50(3)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modern Agricultural History in Malaw: Perspectives on Policy Choices
2007 (English)In: African Studies Review, Vol. 50, no 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Development research is often associated with issues of policy. Researchers aim to increase our contextual and theoretical knowledge to enhance the creation of “good” development policies. One way of doing this is to identify and learn from harmful policies of the past. The objective of this article is to examine such policy-choice explanations by looking at the dominant understandings of the modern history of agriculture in Malawi. The perspectives share the view that the high level of rural poverty is, to a great extent, an outcome of the agricultural policies implemented by the colonial and postcolonial governments. Of crucial importance are the mechanisms whereby the state actively tried to transfer resources from the smallholder sector to the state or to the estate sector. This had a negative impact on the production capacity of the smallholder sector. This article notes that the focus on policies alone is not a sufficient approach to understand the dynamics and limitations of the smallholder sector. The article also points to some methodological weaknesses with policy-choice explanations that are relevant for development research in general.

Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-20480 (URN)
Available from: 2007-11-26 Created: 2007-11-26 Last updated: 2022-02-25Bibliographically approved
Green, E. (2007). Recension av Land, Labour and Capital in Ghana – From Slavery to Free Labour in Asante, 1807-1956 (Gareth Austin) [Review]. Historisk Tidskrift (2)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recension av Land, Labour and Capital in Ghana – From Slavery to Free Labour in Asante, 1807-1956 (Gareth Austin)
2007 (Swedish)In: Historisk Tidskrift, no 2Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
National Category
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-20484 (URN)
Available from: 2007-11-26 Created: 2007-11-26 Last updated: 2022-02-25Bibliographically approved
Green, E. & Chiwona-Karltun, L. (2006). Jordbrukskriser i Afrika går att undvika. Omvärlden (1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Jordbrukskriser i Afrika går att undvika
2006 (Swedish)In: Omvärlden, no 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Keywords
jordbruk, arbetskraftbrist, teknologi
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-20485 (URN)
Available from: 2007-11-26 Created: 2007-11-26 Last updated: 2022-02-25Bibliographically approved
Green, E. (2005). Agrarian change and commercialisation in colonial Malawi. South African Journal of Economic History, 20(1), 18-39
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Agrarian change and commercialisation in colonial Malawi
2005 (English)In: South African Journal of Economic History, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 18-39Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Witwatersrand: University of Witwatersrand, 2005
Keywords
Agrarian change, commercialisation, Malawi
National Category
Economic History
Research subject
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-50582 (URN)
Available from: 2010-12-29 Created: 2010-12-29 Last updated: 2022-02-24Bibliographically approved
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