Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 12) Show all publications
Pas, A., Watson, E. E. & Butt, B. (2023). Land tenure transformation: The case of community conservancies in northern Kenya. Political Geography, 106, Article ID 102950.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Land tenure transformation: The case of community conservancies in northern Kenya
2023 (English)In: Political Geography, ISSN 0962-6298, E-ISSN 1873-5096, Vol. 106, article id 102950Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Over the last thirty years, community conservancies have become widespread in several African countries exemplifying new patterns of land and resource governance strategies. Since 1995, thirty-nine new community conservancies have been established in association with an NGO - the Northern Rangelands Trust in Kenya. Through community conservancies, or community-owned conservation initiatives organized around a demarcated area, the rights and responsibilities of resource governance are significantly reorganized. In this paper, we analyze the process of reorganizing the pastoralist commons in northern Kenya through community conservancies leading to land tenure transformation. Based on two case studies in northern Kenya, we show how land and natural resource governance interventions following a global policy blueprint through community conservancies results in real material and political consequences, and highlight the spatial implications as a result of this process. We argue that community conservancies significantly reorganize the governance of collectively used land and resources. This reorganization has serious implications for land tenure relations and has become the latest manifestation of the hardening of lines between communities in northern Kenya.

Keywords
Community conservation, Land tenure, Access, Claims, Property, Northern Rangelands Trust
National Category
Political Science Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-221679 (URN)10.1016/j.polgeo.2023.102950 (DOI)001061787200001 ()
Available from: 2023-09-27 Created: 2023-09-27 Last updated: 2023-09-27Bibliographically approved
Pas, A., Haller, T., Blanco-Gutiérrez, I., Sternberg, T. & Meyfroidt, P. (2022). Alternative perspectives: A bright side of natural resource governance in drylands. In: Angela Kronenburg García; Tobias Haller; Han van Dijk; Cyrus Samimi; Jeroen Warner (Ed.), Drylands Facing Change: Interventions, Investments and Identities (pp. 236-252). New York: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alternative perspectives: A bright side of natural resource governance in drylands
Show others...
2022 (English)In: Drylands Facing Change: Interventions, Investments and Identities / [ed] Angela Kronenburg García; Tobias Haller; Han van Dijk; Cyrus Samimi; Jeroen Warner, New York: Routledge, 2022, p. 236-252Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Governance of natural resources in the drylands has often been studied from the perspective of failure, using assumptions of degradation, disequilibrium, and marginalization. Yet a growing body of literature engages with the study of outcomes that are considered positive, providing examples and explanations of cases where conflicts related to natural resource use have been adequately addressed by adapting existing or constructing new institutions of governance. Based on literature providing empirical case studies, this chapter discusses the conditions of four such cases, using the six elements of the constitutionality approach. Based on these cases we provide insight into positive examples of local institution building to improve natural resource governance. Our main cross-case findings show that, in order for institution-building processes to be labelled by local actors as positive, there is a need—besides the support of external catalyzing agents and institutional memory and recognition—for self-determination as an important element in claiming space to actively engage with the institution-building process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Routledge, 2022
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-211673 (URN)10.4324/9781003174486-17 (DOI)2-s2.0-85141584564 (Scopus ID)9781003174486 (ISBN)9781032005089 (ISBN)9781032393513 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-11-25 Created: 2022-11-25 Last updated: 2022-11-25Bibliographically approved
De Bruijn, M., Zhang, Q., Abu-Kishk, H., Butt, B., Hashimshony-Yaffe, N., Sternberg, T. & Pas, A. (2022). Drylands connected: Mobile communication and changing power positions in (nomadic) pastoral societies. In: Angela Kronenburg García; Tobias Haller; Han van Dijk; Cyrus Samimi; Jeroen Warner (Ed.), Drylands Facing Change: Interventions, Investments and Identities (pp. 193-211). New York: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drylands connected: Mobile communication and changing power positions in (nomadic) pastoral societies
Show others...
2022 (English)In: Drylands Facing Change: Interventions, Investments and Identities / [ed] Angela Kronenburg García; Tobias Haller; Han van Dijk; Cyrus Samimi; Jeroen Warner, New York: Routledge, 2022, p. 193-211Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The new connectivity, through mobile phones, social media, and wireless internet, is an agent in social change in the drylands. In this chapter, we present four case studies: the introduction of mobile apps in Mongolia and Kenya, the role of mobile telephony in the Sahel, and the introduction of online learning in the Negev Desert. Each of these case studies develops an argument around the role of connectivity in ‘giving a voice’ to the people living in drylands. Indeed, as the studies show, the new technology of communication is a resource for such populations, especially when we focus on the benefits of improved communication and access to information. However, the effective use of such a resource is hampered by the lack of knowledge of dryland dynamics among the developers of the new technology and by the imposed power relations of the State. Also, the technology may follow its own pathway, being appropriated by the population in unexpected ways and creating new power relations that may also lead to conflict.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Routledge, 2022
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-211672 (URN)10.4324/9781003174486-14 (DOI)2-s2.0-85141612240 (Scopus ID)9781003174486 (ISBN)9781032005089 (ISBN)9781032393513 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-11-25 Created: 2022-11-25 Last updated: 2022-11-25Bibliographically approved
Pas, A. & Cavanagh, C. (2022). Understanding 'night grazing': Conservation governance, rural inequalities, and shifting responses 'from above and below' throughout the nychthemeron in Laikipia, Kenya. Geoforum, 134, 143-153
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding 'night grazing': Conservation governance, rural inequalities, and shifting responses 'from above and below' throughout the nychthemeron in Laikipia, Kenya
2022 (English)In: Geoforum, ISSN 0016-7185, E-ISSN 1872-9398, Vol. 134, p. 143-153Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Across much of eastern Africa, the land area coverage of private or otherwise non-state conservation areas is rapidly increasing. In Kenya, these trends have sparked renewed contestation and debate concerning the property rights and broader terms of access to non-state conservation spaces. Pursuant to these disputes, emergent conservation territories are increasingly governed through practices of landscape stratification, demarcation, and surveillance, as well as via the formalization of community-based grazing arrangements in hybridized ‘buffer zone’ spaces. Examining the empirical implications of these practices in Kenya’s Laikipia County, we highlight the somewhat counterintuitive ways in which private conservationists increasingly employ grazing arrangements ‘from above’ not only to regulate access to natural resources, but also to influence subject formation processes and to fix or otherwise reshape the spatial contours of pastoralist systems. Emphasizing the limitations of such initiatives, however, we foreground the significance of ongoing patterns of agro-pastoral transformation and their implications for the persistence of night grazing or other illicit nocturnal responses ‘from below’ amongst certain strata of Laikipia’s internally diverse communities. Whilst such forms of nocturnal agency are inherently significant insofar as they frustrate conservationists’ efforts to uniformly enforce resource access restrictions throughout the nychthemeron or complete 24-hour ‘day-night’ cycle, we suggest that these practices also grant important insight into the nature of shifting ‘conservation subjectivities’ in East African drylands.

Keywords
Political ecology, Conservation, Pastoralism, Agency, Land rush, Drylands
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-208001 (URN)10.1016/j.geoforum.2022.04.015 (DOI)000831203800003 ()2-s2.0-85134326471 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-08-16 Created: 2022-08-16 Last updated: 2022-08-16Bibliographically approved
Boas, I., Schapendonk, J., Blondin, S. & Pas, A. (2020). Methods as Moving Ground: Reflections on the ‘Doings’ of Mobile Methodologies. Social Inclusion, 8(4), 136-146
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methods as Moving Ground: Reflections on the ‘Doings’ of Mobile Methodologies
2020 (English)In: Social Inclusion, E-ISSN 2183-2803, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 136-146Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As mobilities studies became a well-respected field in social science, discussions on mobile research designs followed. Usually, these discussions are part of empirical papers and reveal specific methodological choices of individual researchers, or groups of researchers sharing the same objectives and questions. This article starts with a different approach. It is based on continuous discussions between four researchers who developed their own version of mobility-driven projects, starting from different disciplinary backgrounds and using different research techniques. By sharing and contrasting personal fieldwork experiences, we reflect on the doings of mobile methodologies. We engage with the mistakes, dilemmas, and (dis)comforts that emerge from our own mobile research practices, and discuss what this implies for relations of power between the researcher and the research participants, and to what extent mobile research can represent the mobility that we seek to study. Specifically, the article addresses three questions: 1) To what extent do we produce different knowledge with our mobile methodologies? 2) How do our smooth writings about methodology relate to the ‘messy’ realities in the field? 3) How do our practices articulate and transcend difference between researchers and research participants?

Keywords
mobile methodologies, mobility, positionality, reflexivity, representation
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-186798 (URN)10.17645/si.v8i4.3326 (DOI)000592300000004 ()
Available from: 2020-11-19 Created: 2020-11-19 Last updated: 2024-07-04Bibliographically approved
Pas Schrijver, A. (2019). Pastoralists, Mobility and Conservation: Shifting rules of access and control of grazing resources in Kenya's northern drylands. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pastoralists, Mobility and Conservation: Shifting rules of access and control of grazing resources in Kenya's northern drylands
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Pastoral mobility is seen as the most effective strategy to make use of constantly shifting resources. In northern Kenya, mobile pastoralism as a highly-valued strategy to manage grazing areas and exploit resource variability is becoming more complex. Policy and project implementation has historically been driven by the imperative to secure land tenure and improve pasture in bounded areas through State-led settlement schemes. Relatively recently, increased (inter)national interests in nature and wildlife conservation on community land in the northern pastoralist regions see conservation and development as crucial and urgent requirements for stimulating economic growth and security. This study presents the case of Samburu pastoral mobility within the context of such shifting social and environmental circumstances. It focuses on changing rules of access and control of livestock resources. These transformations are analysed in the context of the large-scale establishment of community conservancies and what role these conservancies play in the actual use and transformation of space for pastoralists. Empirically, this thesis is based on a total of eighteen months fieldwork including semi-structured interviews and observations in Samburu, Isiolo and Laikipia. It demonstrates how the principal of reciprocal access to pasture between pastoralists is giving way to conditional access based on membership of more formal, territory-based institutions such as community conservancies. It further shows how access to private land may be open for negotiation through the formation of grazing arrangements, which are also used to control pastoralists’ movements beyond enclosed land. In spite of a rhetoric acknowledging the multiple benefits of livestock mobility, current policy entails a continuation of past policy and project implementation where prescriptions still revolve around conservation enclosures and settlement politics. The thesis concludes that such processes of territoriality are likely to produce unexpected and potentially disappointing outcomes, while struggle and conflict persist.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University, 2019. p. 106
Series
Meddelanden från Kulturgeografiska institutionen vid Stockholms universitet, ISSN 0585-3508 ; 156
Keywords
pastoralism, livestock mobility, conservation, community conservancy, Northern Rangelands Trust, political ecology, access, institutions, governmentality, territoriality, Samburu, Laikipia, Isiolo, Kenya
National Category
Human Geography
Research subject
Geography with Emphasis on Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-162137 (URN)978-91-7797-410-9 (ISBN)978-91-7797-411-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-01-10, Högbomsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Manuscript. Paper 3: Manuscript.

Available from: 2018-12-04 Created: 2018-11-13 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Marchant, R., Widgren, M., Pas Schrijver, A. & Wright, D. (2018). Drivers and trajectories of land cover change in East Africa: Human and environmental interactions from 6000 years ago to present. Earth-Science Reviews, 178, 322-378
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drivers and trajectories of land cover change in East Africa: Human and environmental interactions from 6000 years ago to present
2018 (English)In: Earth-Science Reviews, ISSN 0012-8252, E-ISSN 1872-6828, Vol. 178, p. 322-378Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

East African landscapes today are the result of the cumulative effects of climate and land-use change over millennial timescales. In this review, we compile archaeological and palaeoenvironmental data from East Africa to document land-cover change, and environmental, subsistence and land-use transitions, over the past 6000 years. Throughout East Africa there have been a series of relatively rapid and high-magnitude environmental shifts characterised by changing hydrological budgets during the mid- to late Holocene. For example, pronounced environmental shifts that manifested as a marked change in the rainfall amount or seasonality and subsequent hydrological budget throughout East Africa occurred around 4000, 800 and 300 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP). The past 6000 years have also seen numerous shifts in human interactions with East African ecologies. From the mid-Holocene, land use has both diversified and increased exponentially, this has been associated with the arrival of new subsistence systems, crops, migrants and technologies, all giving rise to a sequence of significant phases of land-cover change. The first large-scale human influences began to occur around 4000 yr BP, associated with the introduction of domesticated livestock and the expansion of pastoral communities. The first widespread and intensive forest clearances were associated with the arrival of iron-using early farming communities around 2500 yr BP, particularly in productive and easily-cleared mid-altitudinal areas. Extensive and pervasive land-cover change has been associated with population growth, immigration and movement of people. The expansion of trading routes between the interior and the coast, starting around 1300 years ago and intensifying in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries CE, was one such process. These caravan routes possibly acted as conduits for spreading New World crops such as maize (Zea mays), tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) and tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), although the processes and timings of their introductions remains poorly documented. The introduction of southeast Asian domesticates, especially banana (Musa spp.), rice (Oryza spp.), taro (Colocasia esculenta), and chicken (Gallus gallus), via transoceanic biological transfers around and across the Indian Ocean, from at least around 1300 yr BP, and potentially significantly earlier, also had profound social and ecological consequences across parts of the region.

Through an interdisciplinary synthesis of information and metadatasets, we explore the different drivers and directions of changes in land-cover, and the associated environmental histories and interactions with various cultures, technologies, and subsistence strategies through time and across space in East Africa. This review suggests topics for targeted future research that focus on areas and/or time periods where our understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and land-cover change are most contentious and/or poorly resolved. The review also offers a perspective on how knowledge of regional land-use change can be used to inform and provide perspectives on contemporary issues such as climate and ecosystem change models, conservation strategies, and the achievement of nature-based solutions for development purposes.

National Category
Human Geography
Research subject
Geography with Emphasis on Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-153997 (URN)10.1016/j.earscirev.2017.12.010 (DOI)000430774000014 ()
Available from: 2018-03-11 Created: 2018-03-11 Last updated: 2022-02-28Bibliographically approved
Pas, A. (2018). Governing Grazing and Mobility in the Samburu Lowlands, Kenya. Land, 7(2), Article ID 41.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Governing Grazing and Mobility in the Samburu Lowlands, Kenya
2018 (English)In: Land, E-ISSN 2073-445X, Vol. 7, no 2, article id 41Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pastoral mobility is seen as the most effective strategy to make use of constantly shifting resources. However, mobile pastoralism as a highly-valued strategy to manage grazing areas and exploit resource variability is becoming more complex, due to recurrent droughts, loss of forage, government-led settlement schemes, and enclosure of land for community conservation, among other reasons. Yet knowledge of how Samburu pastoralists perceive these changes, and govern and innovate in their mobility patterns and resource use, has received limited attention. This paper seeks to understand how Samburu pastoralists in the drylands of northern Kenya use and govern natural resources, how livestock grazing and mobility is planned for, and how boundaries and territory are constructed and performed both within and beyond the context of (non)governmental projects. Fieldwork for this paper was conducted in Sesia, Samburu East, and consisted of interviews, focus group discussions, and participatory observation. Findings show that livestock mobility involves longer periods and more complex distances due to a shrinking resource base and new rules of access. Although access was previously generated based on the value of reciprocity, the creation of new forms of resource management results in conditional processes of inclusion and exclusion. Policy and project implementation has historically been driven by the imperative to secure land tenure and improve pasture in bounded areas. Opportunities to support institutions that promote mobility have been given insufficient attention.

Keywords
communal grazing regulations, pastoral mobility, boundaries, Samburu pastoralists, Kenya
National Category
Human Geography
Research subject
Geography with Emphasis on Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-154552 (URN)10.3390/land7020041 (DOI)000436556500002 ()
Projects
Resilience in East African Landscapes
Note

This work was supported by the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions Resilience in East African Landscapes (REAL) Innovative Training Network funded by the European Commission [FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN project no. 606879].

Available from: 2018-04-02 Created: 2018-04-02 Last updated: 2023-02-06Bibliographically approved
Pellis, A., Pas, A. & Duineveld, M. (2018). The Persistence of Tightly Coupled Conflicts: The Case of Loisaba, Kenya. Conservation and Society, 16(4), 387-396
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Persistence of Tightly Coupled Conflicts: The Case of Loisaba, Kenya
2018 (English)In: Conservation and Society, ISSN 0972-4923, E-ISSN 0975-3133, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 387-396Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Contributing to the debate on the multidimensional nature of resource-based conflicts in political ecology, and building upon Niklas Luhmann's Social Systems Theory, we have studied the persistent and shifting nature of conflicts as well as their dependencies on other conflicts in and around Loisaba conservancy. This private conservancy is situated in northern Laikipia (Kenya). For a long time, its management was focused on wildlife conservation, high-end tourism and commercial ranching. Developments and events at neighbouring ranches and community conservation areas shifted this focus. Decades of more or less peaceful regional co-existence has recently transformed into conflictual, sometimes even violent situations. At first sight, these emergent conflicts seem related to recurrent droughts, competing resource dependencies, national elections, or incitements by wealthy and influential politicians. For this study, however, we conceptualise conflicts as particular kinds of discourses that emerge, exist and change. This happens not only according to their own internal logics, but also through their dependencies with other conflict discourses. In this paper, we characterise the relations between conflicts on a range from tight to loose couplings and introduce three related forms of coupling (overpowering, resisting, and resonating) to provide a more detailed understanding of how conflicts may interrelate.

Keywords
Conflict, Social Systems Theory, self-reference, structural couplings, Kenya
National Category
Human Geography
Research subject
Geography with Emphasis on Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-158846 (URN)10.4103/cs.cs_17_38 (DOI)000445891400001 ()
Available from: 2018-08-16 Created: 2018-08-16 Last updated: 2022-03-23Bibliographically approved
Pas Schrijver, A. & Lenkaina, D. (2017). Livestock Grazing and Mobility: Grazing management and livestock mobility in Lekiji Sesia, Kenya. Stockholm: Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Livestock Grazing and Mobility: Grazing management and livestock mobility in Lekiji Sesia, Kenya
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This booklet is based on the PhD research project carried out by Annemiek Pas Schrijver from the University of Stockholm and Daniel Lenkaina from Lekiji. The overall research project took place in the Waso Ngiro River basin and looks at changing resources governance and mobility patterns. This booklet represents part of the research which took place in Lekiji, Sesia, Samburu. The information in this booklet is based on interviews and secondary literature sources. The main topic of the booklet is grazing management and livestock mobility and how these have changed over time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University, 2017. p. 51
Keywords
Pastoralism, Kenya, Mobility, Samburu, Resources Management, Institutions, History, Narratives of Change
National Category
Human Geography
Research subject
Natural Resources Management; Mobile Life; Geography with Emphasis on Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-146810 (URN)978-91-87355-36-3 (ISBN)978-91-87355-37-0 (ISBN)
Projects
Resilience in East African Landscapes
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Available from: 2017-09-11 Created: 2017-09-11 Last updated: 2022-02-28Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4635-9898

Search in DiVA

Show all publications