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Behtoui, A. & Strömberg, I. (2020). Compensatory school effects and social capital. Social Sciences, 9(11), Article ID 193.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compensatory school effects and social capital
2020 (English)In: Social Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-0760, Vol. 9, no 11, article id 193Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study is to explore whether and how school-based social capital (SSC) may increase or reduce inequalities in the academic achievement and well-being of students from different backgrounds (class, gender, and ethnicity). SSC here refers to those qualities of social relationships and the degree of interconnectedness between students, teachers, and parents that can support the educational attainment and social adjustment of young people. As the results of our ethnographic studies indicate, there is a significant association between SSC and school composition—i.e., the class and ethnic background of students in a school. The association indicates the stratification effect of social capital in schools as a predominant pattern. In a school with students from higher socio-economic backgrounds, we observed more qualified and motivated teachers, an intensive parental involvement, and, consequently, more constructive and friendly relationships among students. In contrast, in a school located in a disadvantaged area, the social relations were quite the reverse. We then found a third category. In a school with children from lower social class backgrounds placed in an immigrant-dense area, highly committed school staff were able to create an emotional closeness and trust between them, the pupils, and their parents. School-based social capital in this context introduced a sense of solidarity and created a pro-educational climate.

Keywords
social capital, school, Sweden, counter-stratification
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-186951 (URN)10.3390/socsci9110193 (DOI)000683731000008 ()
Available from: 2020-11-30 Created: 2020-11-30 Last updated: 2022-02-25Bibliographically approved
Behtoui, A., Hertzberg, F. & Neergaard, A. (2020). Inledning. In: Alireza Behtoui, Fredrik Hertzberg, Anders Neergaard (Ed.), Ungdomars fritidsaktiviteter: deltagande, möjligheter och konsekvenser (pp. 13-36). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inledning
2020 (Swedish)In: Ungdomars fritidsaktiviteter: deltagande, möjligheter och konsekvenser / [ed] Alireza Behtoui, Fredrik Hertzberg, Anders Neergaard, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2020, p. 13-36Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2020
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology) Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-192939 (URN)9789144129242 (ISBN)
Available from: 2021-05-05 Created: 2021-05-05 Last updated: 2022-02-25Bibliographically approved
Behtoui, A., Hertzberg, F. & Neergaard, A. (Eds.). (2020). Ungdomars fritidsaktiviteter: deltagande, möjligheter och konsekvenser. Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ungdomars fritidsaktiviteter: deltagande, möjligheter och konsekvenser
2020 (Swedish)Collection (editor) (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
 
Abstract [sv]

I Ungdomars fritidsaktiviteter studeras fritidsaktiviteter och dess betydelse för ungdomar. Vilka är engagerade i fritidsaktiviteter och vilka är det inte? Förstärker aktiviteterna skillnader mellan unga med olika klassbakgrund, etnicitet eller kön, eller kan de bidra till en positiv utveckling för unga från resurssvaga familjer? Forskningen om fritidsaktiviteter är ett växande fält inom pedagogik, psykologi, socialt arbete och sociologi. Boken vänder sig till studenter i dessa ämnen och till lärare, fritidspedagoger, studie- och yrkesvägledare samt övriga som arbetar med ungdomar och ungdomsfrågor – praktiskt och i forskning. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2020. p. 264
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology) Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-192937 (URN)9789144129242 (ISBN)
Available from: 2021-05-05 Created: 2021-05-05 Last updated: 2022-02-25Bibliographically approved
Behtoui, A., Hertzberg, F., Jonsson, R., León Rosales, R. & Neergaard, A. (2019). Sweden: The Otherization of the Descendants of Immigrants (2ed.). In: Peter A. J. Stevens, A. Gary Dworkin (Ed.), The Palgrave Handbook of Race and Ethnic Inequalities in Education: (pp. 999-1034). Palgrave Macmillan (0721474136)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sweden: The Otherization of the Descendants of Immigrants
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2019 (English)In: The Palgrave Handbook of Race and Ethnic Inequalities in Education / [ed] Peter A. J. Stevens, A. Gary Dworkin, Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, 2, no 0721474136, p. 999-1034Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter offers a systematic review of the literature on educational inequality and school attainments of immigrants’ offspring in Sweden. The review covers research conducted between 1990 and 2015 and critically examines how different research traditions explain this inequality. The chapter begins by mapping the key characteristics of the Swedish educational system together with Swedish immigration patterns. Thereafter, five major research traditions that explain educational inequality and ethnic background in Sweden are presented. These perspectives include (1) political arithmetic; (2) racism and discrimination; (3) language proficiency tradition; (4) school choice and school segregation; and (5) cultural and social capital and socio-historical contexts. The ‘political arithmetic’ tradition, which starts mainly from a positivistic approach and employs large-scale, quantitative research strategies, has focused on the individual and demographic characteristics of pupils. The main assumption of the other research clusters is that there are important contextual circumstances (beyond individual factors) which decisively affect the educational achievements of the descendants of immigrants. While often dominated by qualitative approaches, these types of research do sometimes include quantitatively designed studies. These research traditions take a more critical stance on government policies, which have produced an extremely segregated school system, and show the consequences of a concentration of children of families from vulnerable groups (economically disadvantaged and immigrant groups in marginalized neighborhoods) in schools with limited resources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Palgrave Macmillan, 2019 Edition: 2
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-171215 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-94724-2_23 (DOI)978-3-319-94723-5 (ISBN)978-3-319-94724-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-07-29 Created: 2019-07-29 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Behtoui, A. & Høyer Leivestad, H. (2019). The "stranger" among Swedish "homo academicus". Higher Education, 77(2), 213-228
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The "stranger" among Swedish "homo academicus"
2019 (English)In: Higher Education, ISSN 0018-1560, E-ISSN 1573-174X, Vol. 77, no 2, p. 213-228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article deals with individuals of immigrant background in Swedish higher education—i.e., those who have a PhD and work in Swedish universities. The aim of the study is to examine whether and how factors other than academic qualifications—such as gender and migrant background—may affect the individual’s ability to find employment and pursue a successful career in a Swedish institution of higher education. The data used in the first section are Swedish registry data (LISA database and population), administered by Statistics Sweden. The second part of the paper is based on semi-structured interviews with 19 academics of migrant background. The results show that, given the same work experience and compared to the reference group (born in Sweden with at least one Swedish-born parent), individuals born in Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America are, firstly, more likely to be unemployed and, secondly, if they are employed, to have a lower income (lower position). The ways in which such gaps arises are also examined.

Keywords
Swedish higher education, Immigrant background, Recruitment, Advancement, Equal opportunities
National Category
Social Anthropology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-164024 (URN)10.1007/s10734-018-0266-x (DOI)000456209000002 ()
Available from: 2019-01-11 Created: 2019-01-11 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Leivestad Høyer, H. & Behtoui, A. (2018). "De andra" i den svenska akademiska eliten. In: Bengt Erik Eriksson, Mikael Holmqvist, Lena Sohl (Ed.), Eliter i Sverige: Tvärvetenskapliga perspektiv på makt, status och klass (pp. 247-274). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"De andra" i den svenska akademiska eliten
2018 (Swedish)In: Eliter i Sverige: Tvärvetenskapliga perspektiv på makt, status och klass / [ed] Bengt Erik Eriksson, Mikael Holmqvist, Lena Sohl, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, p. 247-274Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018
National Category
Social Anthropology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-164026 (URN)9789144116365 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-01-11 Created: 2019-01-11 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Behtoui, A. (2018). Etniska hierarkier och (icke-)representation: Partikandidater med migrationsbakgrund vid svenska valet 2014. Sociologisk forskning, 55(2-3), 317-339
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Etniska hierarkier och (icke-)representation: Partikandidater med migrationsbakgrund vid svenska valet 2014
2018 (Swedish)In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, E-ISSN 2002-066X, Vol. 55, no 2-3, p. 317-339Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ethnic hierarchies and (non)representation. Party candidates with migration background in the general election of 2014This paper analyses the extent to which individuals with migration background were appointed and elected into different levels of public decision-making bodies in the latest Swedish general election (2014). Individuals of migration background refers in this study to those born abroad or born in Sweden with two foreign-born parents. Data for this study is taken from Statistics Sweden's register of candidates elected in municipal, county and national parliamentary elections in 2014, supplemented by information from other Statistics Sweden's registers. The results demonstrate that: (a) individuals with a migration background are severely underrepresented in the Swedish decision-making bodies; (b) even in cases when individuals with a migration background are nominated on the party lists, they have less of a chance of being elected compared to native candidates. (c) The dominant resource theory cannot explain the underrepresentation of the stigmatized migrant groups and their descendants, and finally; (d) the results indicate some support to the hypothesis about the importance of access to social networks in order to be nominated and elected.

Keywords
political representation, migration background, elections, decision-making bodies
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-158181 (URN)000437926900011 ()
Available from: 2018-07-23 Created: 2018-07-23 Last updated: 2022-05-10Bibliographically approved
Olsson, E., Behtoui, A. & Høyer Leivestad, H. (2018). Karriär på spel: Socialt kapital och karriärer för disputerade migranter i den svenska högskolan. In: Maja Povrzanović Frykman, Magnus Öhlander (Ed.), Högutbildade migranter i Sverige: (pp. 195-210). Lund: Arkiv förlag & tidskrift
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Karriär på spel: Socialt kapital och karriärer för disputerade migranter i den svenska högskolan
2018 (Swedish)In: Högutbildade migranter i Sverige / [ed] Maja Povrzanović Frykman, Magnus Öhlander, Lund: Arkiv förlag & tidskrift, 2018, p. 195-210Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Arkiv förlag & tidskrift, 2018
National Category
Social Anthropology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-163305 (URN)9789179243081 (ISBN)9789179243098 (ISBN)
Funder
Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation
Available from: 2018-12-20 Created: 2018-12-20 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Behtoui, A., Boréus, K., Neergaard, A. & Yazdanpanah, S. (2017). Speaking up, leaving or keeping silent: racialized employees in the Swedish elderly care sector. Work, Employment and Society, 31(6), 954-971
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Speaking up, leaving or keeping silent: racialized employees in the Swedish elderly care sector
2017 (English)In: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 954-971Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

When encountering problems and dissatisfaction in the workplace, employees may choose between three strategies: voice; exit; or silence. Using survey data and interview material from a study of employees in an elderly care organization in Sweden, this article investigates the workers' perceptions of the eligibility and prospects of these strategies and which individual characteristics and situational factors might affect them. The focus is on racialized workers (operationalized through their region of birth) who, according to earlier studies, are less likely than other employees to choose voice behaviour. Contrary to some earlier studies, the results here attribute such a propensity to the importance of power differences across racial hierarchies' rather than to differences in cultural values. Individuals in this (racialized) category have a lower occupational status, earn less and experience less favourable relationships with their managers.

Keywords
exit, racialized workers, silence, Sweden, voice
National Category
Economics and Business Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-151157 (URN)10.1177/0950017016667042 (DOI)000417709900005 ()
Available from: 2018-01-15 Created: 2018-01-15 Last updated: 2022-02-28Bibliographically approved
Behtoui, A. (2016). Beyond social ties: The impact of social capital on labour market outcomes for young Swedish people. Journal of Sociology, 52(4), 711-724
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beyond social ties: The impact of social capital on labour market outcomes for young Swedish people
2016 (English)In: Journal of Sociology, ISSN 1440-7833, E-ISSN 1741-2978, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 711-724Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study makes use of a dataset which contains material relating to young Swedish people who have recently completed their studies and started working. It explores whether using social networks as such or using individuals' resources which are accessible through social networks (social capital) provides relative advantages in the competition for better jobs. Interest in this topic stems from the recent development of sociological theories in this field. The results indicate that the use of social ties is a common way to find a job in the highly regulated Swedish labour market, but that informal recruitment methods per se provide no relative advantages in the competition for better jobs. On the other hand, given the same demographic characteristics, socioeconomic background and educational attainments, there is a positive association between resources embedded in an individual's social network (social capital) and the quality of the jobs obtained.

Keywords
class, ethnicity, gender, social capital, social networks, status attainment
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-137585 (URN)10.1177/1440783315581217 (DOI)000389708500007 ()
Available from: 2017-01-09 Created: 2017-01-09 Last updated: 2022-02-28Bibliographically approved
Projects
Civil Societies Organisations and Educational Achievements of Young People in Marginalised Urban Areas [2014-01795_VR]; Södertörn UniversityThe impact of civil society organisations on the educational achievements of young people in marginalised urban areas of Stockholm and St. Petersburg [42/2014_OSS]; Södertörn UniversityHow can schools reduce inequalities in educational opportunities? [2019-00737_Forte]; Södertörn UniversityHow can schools reduce inequalities in educational opportunities? [2019-04357_VR]; Södertörn UniversityImprovement of educational outcomes in segregated schools, but how? [2022-00620_Forte]; Södertörn UniversitySchool Dropout and the Post-Dropout Trajectories of Young People in Sweden and Finland: A Longitudinal, Multi-Method Comparative Study [22-PR2-0004_OS]; Södertörn University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8227-3659

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