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Yuan, B., Bignert, A., Andersson, P. L., West, C. E., Domellöf, M. & Bergman, Å. (2024). Polychlorinated alkanes in paired blood serum and breast milk in a Swedish cohort study: Matrix dependent partitioning differences compared to legacy POPs. Environment International, 183, Article ID 108440.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polychlorinated alkanes in paired blood serum and breast milk in a Swedish cohort study: Matrix dependent partitioning differences compared to legacy POPs
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2024 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 183, article id 108440Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs) constitute a large group of individual congeners originating from commercial chlorinated paraffin (CP) products with carbon chain lengths of PCAs-C10-13, PCAs-C14-17, and PCAs-C18-32, occasionally containing PCAs-C6-9 impurities. The extensive use of CPs has led to global environmental pollution of PCAs. This study aimed to quantify PCAs in paired serum and breast milk of lactating Swedish mothers, exploring their concentration relationship.

Methods: Twenty-five paired samples of mothers’ blood serum and breast milk were analysed and concentrations were determined for PCAs C6-32 and compared to 4,4′-DDE, the PCB congener 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB).

Results: The median concentrations of PCAs-C6-9, PCAs-C10-13, PCAs-C14-17, PCAs-C18-32 and ΣPCAs in serum were 14, 790, 520, 16 and 1350 ng/g lipid weight (lw), respectively, and in breast milk 0.84, 36, 63, 6.0 and 107 ng/g lw. Levels of 4,4′-DDE, CB-153 and HCB were comparable in the two matrices, serum and breast milk at 17, 12 and 4.9 ng/g lw. The results show significant differences of PCAs-C10-13 and PCAs-C14-17 in breast milk with 22– and 6.2-times lower lw-based concentrations than those measured in serum. On wet weight the differences serum/breast milk ratios of PCAs-C6-9, PCAs-C10-13, PCAs-C14-17, PCAs-C18-32 and ΣPCAs were 1.7, 3.2, 1.0, 0.4 and 1.6, respectively, while the ratio for 4,4′-DDE, CB-153 and HCB were each close to 0.1.

Conclusion: Swedish lactating mothers had high serum concentrations of PCAs-C10-13 and PCAs-C14-17, with the ΣPCAs median serum concentration of 1350 ng/g lw. The breast milk concentration, although considerably lower at 107 ng/g lw, still surpassed those of 4,4′-DDE, CB-153 and HCB, suggesting an exposure risk of infants to PCAs. The variation in blood and breast milk accumulation between PCAs and studied legacy POPs, is rarely discussed but warrants further studies on partitioning properties as well as associated toxicological implications.

Keywords
Human exposure, POPs, NorthPop, Lactation, Milk/serum partitioning
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-227312 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2024.108440 (DOI)001164117000001 ()38232504 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85183468429 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-03-19 Created: 2024-03-19 Last updated: 2024-03-19Bibliographically approved
Wei, L., Huang, Q., Qiu, Y., Zhao, J., Rantakokko, P., Gao, H., . . . Bergman, Å. (2023). Legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in eggs of night herons and poultries from the upper Yangtze Basin, Southwest China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 30(41), 93744-93759
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in eggs of night herons and poultries from the upper Yangtze Basin, Southwest China
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2023 (English)In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 30, no 41, p. 93744-93759Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs have been identified as useful indicators for biomonitoring the environmental pollution in China. In this study, we investigated thirty eggs of black-crowned night heron collected from the upper Yangtze River (Changjiang) Basin, Southwest China, for the occurrence of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Our results showed a general presence of POPs in night heron eggs with OCPs being the dominant contaminants, having a geometric mean concentration of 22.2 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww), followed by PCBs (1.36 ng g(-1) ww), PBDEs (0.215 ng g(-1) ww), and PCDD/Fs (23.0 pg g(-1) ww). The concentration levels were found to be significantly higher in night heron eggs than in poultry eggs by one or two magnitude orders. Among OCP congeners, p,p & PRIME;-DDE was found to be predominant in night heron eggs, with a geometric mean concentration of 15.1 ng g(-1) ww. Furthermore, species-specific congener patterns in eggs suggested similar or different sources for different POPs, possibly associated with contaminated soil and parental dietary sources. Additionally, estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were used to evaluate non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk associated with consumption of bird eggs. Our results revealed non-negligible non-cancer and cancer risk for humans who consume wild bird eggs as a regular diet instead of poultry eggs.

Keywords
POPs, PCDD, Fs, OCPs, PBDEs, PCBs, Bird egg, Night heron
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-221357 (URN)10.1007/s11356-023-28974-z (DOI)001040005900010 ()37516701 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85166262139 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-21 Created: 2023-09-21 Last updated: 2023-09-21Bibliographically approved
Fernandes, A. R., Krätschmer, K., McGrath, T. J., Yuan, B., Brandsma, S., Brits, M., . . . Bergman, Å. (2023). Recommended terms and abbreviations for polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs) as the predominant component of chlorinated paraffins (CPs). TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, 169, Article ID 117363.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recommended terms and abbreviations for polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs) as the predominant component of chlorinated paraffins (CPs)
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2023 (English)In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 169, article id 117363Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite several decades of study, ambiguities persist in terms used to express environmental and biotic occurrences of polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs), the main ingredient of chlorinated paraffins (CPs). This can lead to misinterpretation of data between analytical chemists, toxicologists, risk assessors/managers and regulators. The terms recommended here to harmonise reporting and reduce ambiguity use the conventional definition of PCAs - linear chlorinated alkanes (typically, C≥10) with one chlorine per carbon, although some evidence of multiple chlorination exists. Other recommendations include.

● reporting the “Sum of measured PCAs” because “Total PCAs” is currently unquantifiable.

●reporting individual chain lengths, e.g., ΣPCAs-C11, ΣPCAs-C13, allows easier comparability and allows toxicology and risk assessment to consider different PCA combinations.

● maintain studies on individual PCAs in order to better characterise chemical, environmental and health risk behaviour.

The terms could be extended in future to assimilate new findings on individual PCAs, multiple chlorination and chirality.

Keywords
Polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs), Chlorinated paraffins (CPs), PCA congeners, Sum PCAs, Configurational isomer, Chain length congener group, Homologue group, PCA stereoisomer
National Category
Environmental Sciences Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-224840 (URN)10.1016/j.trac.2023.117363 (DOI)001108395300001 ()2-s2.0-85175153729 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-12-28 Created: 2023-12-28 Last updated: 2023-12-28Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, Å., Wang, B., Gerde, P., Bergman, Å. & Yeung, L. W. Y. (2022). Bioavailability of inhaled or ingested PFOA adsorbed to house dust. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(52), 78698-78710
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bioavailability of inhaled or ingested PFOA adsorbed to house dust
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2022 (English)In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 29, no 52, p. 78698-78710Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Indoor environments may impact human health due to chemical pollutants in the indoor air and house dust. This study aimed at comparing the bioavailability and distribution of PFOA following both an inhalation and an oral exposure to PFOA coated house dust in rats. In addition, extractable organofluorine (EOF) was measured in different tissue samples to assess any potential influence of other organofluorine compounds in the experimental house dust. Blood samples were collected at sequential time points after exposure and at the time of termination; the lungs, liver, and kidney were collected for quantification of PFOA and EOF. The concentration of PFOA in plasma increased rapidly in both exposure groups attaining a Cmax at 3 h post exposure. The Cmax following inhalation was four times higher compared to oral exposures. At 48 h post exposure, the levels of PFOA in the plasma, liver, and kidney were twice as high from inhalation exposures. This shows that PFOA is readily bioavailable and has a rapid systemic distribution following an inhalation or oral exposure to house dust coated with PFOA. The proportion of PFOA to EOF corresponded to 65–71% and 74–87% in plasma and tissues, respectively. The mass balance between EOF and target PFOA indicates that there might be other unknown PFAS precursor and/or fluorinated compounds that co-existed in the house dust sample that can have accumulated in rats.

Keywords
Perfluorooctanoic acid, Household dust, Ingestion, Gastro intestinal (GI), Airways, Adsorption, PFAS
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-207241 (URN)10.1007/s11356-022-20829-3 (DOI)000810862400002 ()35699877 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85131782439 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-07-11 Created: 2022-07-11 Last updated: 2022-10-27Bibliographically approved
Valters, K., Olsson, A., Viksne, J., Rubene, L. & Bergman, Å. (2022). Concentration dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in blood of growing Grey heron (Ardea cinerea) chicks in the wild. Environmental Pollution, 306, Article ID 119330.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Concentration dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in blood of growing Grey heron (Ardea cinerea) chicks in the wild
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2022 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 306, article id 119330Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Organochlorine contaminants (OCs) – organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and industrial products and byproducts – are included in different monitoring programmes and surveys, involving various animal species. Fish-eating birds are suitable indicator species for OCs. Adult birds may be difficult to capture, but chicks can be sampled more easily. Blood of birds is a potentially suitable non-destructive matrix for analysis, as OC levels in blood reflect their concentrations in the body. The study was aimed at investigating how age of fast-growing Grey heron (Ardea cinerea) chicks affects contaminant levels in their blood and thus how important is sampling at exact age for biomonitoring purposes. In 1999 on Lake Engure in Latvia whole blood samples of heron chicks were collected at three different time points, with seven and nine days in between the first and second and second and third sampling points, respectively. Twenty-two chicks were sampled at all three times. In total, 102 samples were analysed for 19 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, DDT metabolites – DDE and DDD, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), α-, β-, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and trans-nonachlor. Total PCB concentrations averaged around 2000 ng/g dry extracted matter (EM). DDE was the dominant individual contaminant (ca. 800 ng/g EM), followed by CB-153, -138, and −118. Most of the other analysed OCs were below 100 ng/g EM. No significant (p > 0.05) differences in OC concentrations were found between the three sampling occasions, except for trans-nonachlor. This means that blood can safely be sampled for biomonitoring purposes during the 17 days’ time window. The analysed legacy contaminants may serve as model substances for other persistent organic pollutants.

Keywords
Field study, Fish-eating birds, Nestling, Whole blood, PCBs, Latvia
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-206175 (URN)10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119330 (DOI)000831240600002 ()35483485 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85129045614 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-06-23 Created: 2022-06-23 Last updated: 2022-08-24Bibliographically approved
Darnerud, P. O. & Bergman, Å. (2022). Critical review on disposition of chlorinated paraffins in animals and humans. Environment International, 163, Article ID 107195.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Critical review on disposition of chlorinated paraffins in animals and humans
2022 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, Vol. 163, article id 107195Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Even though the chlorinated paraffins (CPs) have been on the environmental pollution agenda throughout the last 50 years it is a class of chemicals that only now is discussed in terms of an emerging issue with extensive annual publication rates. Major reviews on CPs have been produced, but a deeper understanding of the chemical fate of CPs, including formation of metabolites in animals and humans, is still missing. Thus, the present review aims to critically compile our present knowledge on the disposition, i.e. Adsorption, Disposition, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) of CPs in biota and to identify research needs.

We conclude that CPs could be effectively absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract (GI) tract, and probably also from the lungs, and transported to various organs. A biphasic elimination is suggested, with a rapid initial phase followed by a terminal phase, the latter (e.g., fat tissues) covering half-lives of weeks and months. CPs are metabolized in the liver and excreted mainly via the bile and faeces, and the metabolic rate and type of metabolites are dependent on chlorine content and chain length. Results that strengthen CP metabolism are in vivo findings of phase II metabolites in bile, and CP degradation to carbon fragments in experimental animals. Still the metabolic transformations of CPs are poorly studied, and no metabolic scheme has yet been presented. Further, toxicokinetic mass balance calculations suggest that a large part of a given dose (not found as parent compound) is transformation products of CPs, and in vitro metabolism studies present numerous CP metabolites (e.g., chloroalkenes, chlorinated ketones, aldehydes, and carboxylic acids).

Keywords
Chlorinated paraffins, Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-207325 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2022.107195 (DOI)000800102400011 ()35447436 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85128328319 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-07-15 Created: 2022-07-15 Last updated: 2022-09-05Bibliographically approved
Silva, A. V., Chu, I., Feeley, M., Bergman, Å., Håkansson, H. & Öberg, M. (2022). Dose-dependent toxicological effects in rats following a 90-day dietary exposure to PCB-156 include retinoid disruption. Reproductive Toxicology, 107, 123-139
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dose-dependent toxicological effects in rats following a 90-day dietary exposure to PCB-156 include retinoid disruption
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2022 (English)In: Reproductive Toxicology, ISSN 0890-6238, E-ISSN 1873-1708, Vol. 107, p. 123-139Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The toxicity of PCB-156 (2,3,3′,4,4′,5-hexachlorobiphenyl) was investigated in rats following subchronic dietary exposure. Groups of 10 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered PCB-156 in the diet at 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1 or 10 ppm for 90 days. Dose-dependent increases were detected for the liver, lung and kidney weights, as well as for the liver EROD, PROD and UDPGT enzyme activities and liver uroporphyrin concentration. Dose-dependent decreases were observed in final body weight, body weight gain, and thymus weight. Apolar retinoid concentrations were decreased in the liver and lungs and increased in the kidneys. Histopathological examination of the liver, thyroid, and thymus showed mild to moderate dose-related changes.

A LOAEL of 0.01 ppm was established, based on reduced apolar liver retinoid concentration. Benchmark dose-modelling corroborated the sensitivity of liver retinoid endpoints. The lower confidence limits (BMDL) for a 5% decrease in apolar liver retinoid concentrations were 0.0009 and 0.0007 ppm, respectively, in males and females, corresponding to a daily dose of 0.06 μg PCB-156 per kg body weight. Organizing dose-response data for the individual hepatic endpoints along the PCB-156 dosing scale revealed a sequence of events compatible with a causal link between depletion of apolar retinoids and the other liver biochemistry and pathology findings. Taken together, data suggest that the retinoid endpoints should be further evaluated for a causal relationship to PCB-induced liver toxicity and that retinoid system endpoints are identified and characterized to support health risk assessment in the emerging research fields of endocrine disruption and mixture toxicology.

Keywords
2, 3, 3', 4, 4', 5-hexachlorobiphenyl, PCB-156, Toxicity testing, Vitamin A, Retinoids, Retinoid system
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-202626 (URN)10.1016/j.reprotox.2021.09.012 (DOI)000752637800009 ()34560258 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2022-03-09 Created: 2022-03-09 Last updated: 2022-03-09Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, Å., Bergman, Å. & Weiss, J. M. (2022). Estimated daily intake of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances related to different particle size fractions of house dust. Chemosphere, 303, part 2, Article ID 135061.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimated daily intake of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances related to different particle size fractions of house dust
2022 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 303, part 2, article id 135061Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Indoor environmental pollutants are a threat to human health. In the current study, we analysed 25 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in seven different size fraction of house dust including the two relevant for exposure via ingestion and inhalation. The highest PFAS concentration is found in the inhalable particulate fraction which is explained by the increased surface area as the particulate's sizes decrease. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of the individual PFAS and exposure pathways were calculated for children and adults. In addition, the total EDI for PFOA and its precursors was estimated. The polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAP), followed by PFOA and PFHxA fluortelomer, showed the highest concentrations of PFAS analysed. The cumulative EDI of PFAS for children was 3.0 ng/kg bw per day, a worst-case scenario, which is 17 times higher than the calculated EDI for adults. For children, ingestion of dust was found to result in 800 times higher PFOA exposure than via inhalation. The contribution from PFOA precursors corresponded to only 1% of the EDI from dust indicating PFOA as the main source of exposure. The EDI's of PFOA and PFOS from dust were lower than the calculated EDI's from food ingestion reported by the Swedish Food Agency. Our data indicate that the EDI for the sum of four PFASs: PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS and PFOS from dust intake alone is close to the established tolerable weakly intake of 4.4 ng/kg bw in children, set by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2020. The combined EDI levels PFOA and PFOS from both dust and food exceeded the EFSA TWI for both children and adults. This study demonstrates that dust is a relevant exposure pathway for PFAS intake and that analysis of relevant particle size fractions is important for evaluation of dust as an exposure pathway.

Keywords
Household dust, Inhalation, Ingestion, Exposure, Children, PFOA precursors, Estimated daily intake (EDI)
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-207957 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.135061 (DOI)000833540900003 ()35649447 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85131446448 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-08-18 Created: 2022-08-18 Last updated: 2022-08-18Bibliographically approved
Caporale, N., Leemans, M., Birgersson, L., Germain, P.-L., Cheroni, C., Borbély, G., . . . Testa, G. (2022). From cohorts to molecules: Adverse impacts of endocrine disrupting mixtures. Science, 375(6582)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From cohorts to molecules: Adverse impacts of endocrine disrupting mixtures
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2022 (English)In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 375, no 6582Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

INTRODUCTION: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are compounds that interfere with physiological hormonal regulation. Humans are pervasively exposed to many different EDCs, and a growing body of evidence indicates that early life exposure to such EDC mixtures can induce changes in the human organism that underlie increased susceptibility to diseases throughout the life span, including neurodevelopmental disorders. Chemical regulation is, however, entirely based on the risk assessment of individual compounds, leaving the real-life impact of chemical mixtures unexamined and unregulated. This is relevant insofar as cumulative exposure to multiple compounds may be associated with adverse health outcomes even when the concentrations of individual chemicals fall below the regulatory dose.

RATIONALE: We set out to make the epidemiological associations between exposure to mixtures and health outcomes experimentally tractable, defining molecular pathways and dose responses that could be translated back to actual human exposures and thereby refine current risk assessment practices. As opposed to previous studies that focused on single compounds, we identified and tested an EDC mixture associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in the Swedish Environmental Longitudinal, Mother and child, Asthma and allergy (SELMA) pregnancy cohort (MIX N) by integrating epidemiological data with experimental toxicology and characterized real life–relevant exposure.

RESULTS: We used weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression to identify chemicals associated with language delay in children and included those chemicals in MIX N. MIX N was synthesized following the relative proportions and total concentrations found in the SELMA cohort. It was then tested in both in vitro and in vivo models. In human fetal primary neural stem cells and three-dimensional cortical brain organoids differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells, transcriptomic analysis showed that MIX N interferes with hormonal pathways and dysregulates expression of genes and biological pathways that are causally linked to autism spectrum disorders. Data from experiments in Xenopus leavis and Danio rerio, in vivo models validated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), confirmed thyroid function as one of the key and unifying points of vulnerability to MIX N and linked thyroid disruption to neurodevelopmental effects measured as alterations in locomotor activity. The resulting dose-response relationships were then used to estimate a point of departure (POD), which is the toxicological measure to estimate no-effect concentration. This enabled us to apply a similar mixture approach (SMACH) where we (i) identified individuals in the SELMA study who were sufficiently similarly exposed compared with the experimental mixtures and (ii) determined the proportion of the SELMA children with exposure ranges of concern using the POD as reference.

CONCLUSION: Integrating experimental and epidemiological evidence, we established mechanistic and correlative evidence for neurodevelopmental adversities of an EDC mixture associated with language delay. Using the generated experimental data in a risk assessment concept, we found increased odds of language delay in offspring of up to 54% of pregnant women. These results emphasize the need to take mixtures into account during chemical testing and risk assessment and provide an integrative framework to guide risk assessment strategies.

 

National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-203179 (URN)10.1126/science.abe8244 (DOI)000758142600037 ()35175820 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2022-03-24 Created: 2022-03-24 Last updated: 2022-03-24Bibliographically approved
Yang, Y., Song, L., Zhu, Z., Qiu, Y., Zhao, J., Huang, Q. & Bergman, Å. (2022). Human exposure to phthalate esters via ingestion of municipal drinking water from automatic water purifiers: levels, sources, and risks. Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, 8(12), 2843-2855
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human exposure to phthalate esters via ingestion of municipal drinking water from automatic water purifiers: levels, sources, and risks
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2022 (English)In: Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, ISSN 2053-1400, E-ISSN 2053-1419, Vol. 8, no 12, p. 2843-2855Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The presence of organic pollutants in drinking water is an environmental problem threatening public health. Water purifiers are commonly recognized as effective purification equipment for drinking water and are thus prevalent in the market, so there is a need to assess their true effects on drinking water. In this study, we have analyzed the distribution, potential sources, and health risks of phthalate esters (PAEs) in tap as well as purified water. 7 out of 22 target PAEs have been detected in a total of 75 drinking water samples, including tap water (TW), water vending machines (WVMs), and water boiling machines (WBMs). The total concentrations of 22 PAEs are N.D. to 447 ng L−1 in TW samples, 25.7 to 1.10 × 103 ng L−1 in WBM water, and N.D. to 841 ng L−1 in WVM water. The concentrations of PAEs in most WVM and WBM samples were comparable or slightly higher than those in TW samples. Meanwhile, the ΣPAE concentrations in the nearshore of the Yangtze Estuary area (northern and southern areas) were slightly higher than those from offshore areas (Pudong: PD, Fengxian and Minhang: FM), which may be attributed to the source water. Combining the results of principal component analysis and correlation analysis, certain PAEs, e.g., diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), dibuthyl phthalate (DBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), were more polluting than diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-methyl phthalate (DMP) in WVM water than those in TW samples. This work suggests that the application of water purifiers may not remove certain PAEs efficiently from drinking water. In addition, the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of ΣPAE via drinking water from automatic water purifiers were 2–3 times those from tap water under a high-exposure scenario, but all EDIs are well below current health regulatory guidelines for PAEs. This survey indicates that water purifiers made nearly no decrease to the PAE concentrations and possibly have negative effects on the quality of drinking water.

National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-210688 (URN)10.1039/d2ew00535b (DOI)000864274300001 ()2-s2.0-85141019924 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-11-09 Created: 2022-11-09 Last updated: 2023-08-25Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3403-093x

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