Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Samtal om skrivbedömning: Lärares normer, beslut och samstämmighet
Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9999-3852
2018 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Teachers' conversations about writing assessment : Norms, pedagogical decisions and grading (English)
Abstract [en]

This thesis reports and discusses results from a qualitative study of Swedish teachers' writing assessment in upper secondary school. Based on teacher group discussions, the study investigates teachers' interactions, expressions of norms and decisions when assessing and grading students' writing in the subject of Swedish.

The aim of the study is to describe and analyze how teachers interact and what they pay attention to when discussing writing assessment. In relation to this aim the following three research questions were posed: (1) What characterizes the teachers' conversations about writing assessment? (2) What assessment norms do the teachers express? (3) What decisions do they make?

The theoretical perspectives are dialogical and pedagogical. From a dialogical point of view, the assessment conversations are considered as social acts where teachers in interaction collectively create meaning. Furthermore, the assessment conversations are considered as pedagogical, as a part of teachers' reflective work to discuss how to assess students' work and how to make decisions about further instructions and grading. The methods used to describe and analyze interactional patterns, expressions of norms and decisions in these assessment conversations are topic analysis and initiative-response-analysis.

The empirical data consists of audio and video recordings from three teacher groups' conversations about writing assessment, comprising a total of 17 Swedish teachers from three upper secondary schools. Data was also collected via a questionnaire with the individual teacher's grading of the students' writing and evaluation of the assessment conversations.

The results show that teachers' assessments of students' writing focus on much more, and partly other, criteria than their pedagogical decisions. The quality standards that teachers express in the discussions about student texts focus mostly on communicative quality, language style and text structure but also on content and the use of sources. The pedagogical decisions, on the other hand, almost exclusively focus on text structure and the use of sources.

The results also show that shortcomings in the students' texts are crucial for teachers' summative assessments. Meanwhile, the teachers also express that students' age, their writing development in the course and the national test must be considered. These assessment norms can be compensatory and have a substantial impact on these teachers' decisions on summative assessments. The teacher groups show considerable variation in the basis for their decisions regarding summative assessment of students' writing.

Finally, the teachers demonstrate a high degree of consistency within each teacher group when discussing summative assessment of students' writing. However, the assessments that individual teachers make after the discussions comply only to some extent with the group's decisions. The least degree of consistency was shown by the teacher group who, in the discussion, seemed the most consistent. Decision-making processes in these discussions are characterized by low intensity, where few assessment alternatives are being considered. The overall assessment consistency between the teacher groups was found to be low.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Institutionen för språkdidaktik, Stockholms universitet , 2018. , p. 89
Series
Doktorsavhandlingar i språkdidaktik - Dissertations in Language Education ; 11
Keywords [en]
Writing assessment, social moderation, assessment norm, pedagogical decision, decision-making process, summative assessment
Keywords [sv]
krivbedömning, kvalitetsuppfatttningar, förväntningsnormer, didaktiska beslut, summativ bedömning, beslutsprocesser
National Category
Languages and Literature
Research subject
Language Education
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-154769ISBN: 978-91-7797-236-5 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7797-237-2 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-154769DiVA, id: diva2:1197840
Public defence
2018-06-08, William Olsson-salen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-04-15 Last updated: 2019-03-06Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Vad behöver eleverna undervisning i för att utveckla sitt skrivande? Förväntningsnormer och didaktiska beslut i svensklärares bedömningssamtal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vad behöver eleverna undervisning i för att utveckla sitt skrivande? Förväntningsnormer och didaktiska beslut i svensklärares bedömningssamtal
2016 (Swedish)In: Acta Didactica Norge - tidsskrift for fagdidaktisk forsknings- og utviklingsarbeid i Norge, ISSN 1504-9922, E-ISSN 1504-9922, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

I studien samtalar tre lärargrupper om elevers skrivande och skrivundervisning i ämnet svenska på gymnasiet. Det teoretiska perspektiv som läggs på dessa samtal är didaktiskt och inriktas på hur lärare formulerar och använder bedömningsinformation om elevers skrivande för beslut om skrivundervisningens innehåll. Resultatet visar att lärares bedömningar av elevers skrivande behandlar fler och delvis andra aspekter av skrivförmåga än vad deras didaktiska beslut sedan omfattar. De kvalitetsuppfattningar och förväntningsnormer som lärarna uttrycker i sina bedömningar av elevers skrivande inriktas huvudsakligen på texters kommunikativa kvaliteter, den stilistiska utformningen och textuppbyggnaden, följt av ämnesinnehåll och källanvändning. De didaktiska beslut som fattas utifrån bedömningen av elevers texter inriktas däremot i stort sett enbart på att eleverna behöver skrivundervisning i att disponera text och att använda källor. Detta gör att överensstämmelsen är låg mellan lärarnas beslut om skrivundervisningens inriktning och deras förväntningar på vad eleverna ska kunna. De didaktiska besluten omfattar i begränsad utsträckning den bedömningsinformation som lärarna själva har formulerat.

Abstract [en]

This article presents an analysis of teacher group discussions about students’ writing in the subject of Swedish in upper secondary school. The study adopts a pedagogical perspective on these discussions and focuses on examining teachers’ expressed assessment criteria and relating them to their pedagogical decision-making. The results reveal that teachers’ assessments of students’ writing focus on much more, and partly other, criteria than their pedagogical decisions. The quality standards that teachers express in the discussions about students’ texts focus mostly on communicative quality, language style and text structure followed by content and the use of sources. The pedagogical decisions are, on the other hand, almost exclusively focusing on text structure and the use of sources. This means that there is a gap between teachers’ perceptions of qualities in students’ writing and their pedagogical decisions. The pedagogical decisions cover to a limited extent the assessment information that teachers themselves formulated.

Keywords
Writing assessment, assessment criteria, pedagogical decision-making, formative assessment, Swedish in upper secondary school, Skrivbedömning, kvalitetsuppfattningar, förväntningsnormer, didaktiska beslut, formativ bedömning, svenskämnets didaktik, svenska på gymnasiet
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Language Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-130362 (URN)10.5617/adno.2642 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-05-18 Created: 2016-05-18 Last updated: 2019-02-20Bibliographically approved
2. Vad uppmärksammar lärare i samtal om skrivbedömning? Svensklärares normer för beslut om summativ bedömning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vad uppmärksammar lärare i samtal om skrivbedömning? Svensklärares normer för beslut om summativ bedömning
2018 (Swedish)In: Nordisk tidskrift för allmän didaktik, ISSN 2002-1534, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 34-55Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article reports on a qualitative study of Swedish teachers’ summative assessments of students’ writing in upper secondary school. Based on teacher group discussions, the study describes and analyses teachers’ expressions of norms when assessing and grading students’ writing in the subject of Swedish. Data consist of audio- and video recordings from three focus group discussions, comprising a total of 17 teachers. Topic analysis (Linell, 2001) is the method used to identify expressions of assessment norms in these discussions. The analysis reveals that these teachers’ summative assessments of students’ writing express two competing norms: a non-compensatory and a compensatory norm. The non-compensatory norm is expressed through perceptions that all text qualities must correspond to the same criteria. This means that shortcomings in texts are crucial for teachers’ summative assessments. The text qualities that primarily determine these decisions are language style and text structure. Meanwhile, the compensatory norm is expressed through perceptions that in summative aspects such as students’ age and writing instructions as well as students’ writing development and the national test must be considered. These competing assessment norms have a substantial impact on theses teachers’ decisions on summative assessments. The teacher groups show significant variation in the basis for their decisions regarding summative assessment of students' writing.

Abstract [sv]

I studien undersöks svensklärares normer för beslut om summativ bedömning av gymnasieelevers skrivande. Empirin består av ljud- och videoupptagningar från tre lärargruppers bedömningssamtal där sammanlagt 17 svensklärare deltar. Topikanalys (Linell, 2001) används för att beskriva och analysera vilka bedömningsnormer lärarna ger uttryck för i dessa samtal. Resultatet visar att lärarna framför allt uppmärksammar texters kvaliteter i relation till kunskapskravens betygssteg och uttrycker att samtliga textkvaliteter ska motsvara samma betygssteg för ett visst betygsomdöme. Detta innebär att lärarnas beslut om summativ bedömning i hög grad bestäms av brister i enskilda textkvaliteter, främst avseende texters språkliga stil och  strukturtextuppbyggnad. Denna bedömningsnorm fungerar icke-kompensatoriskt eftersom fördelar i texterna inte kan väga upp brister. Samtidigt uttrycker lärarna betydande hänsyn till bedömningsuppgifter och förväntningar på elevers skrivande i årskurs 1, elevers skrivutveckling under kurs och det nationella kursprovet i svenska 1. Dessa bedömningsnormer är oftast kompensatoriska genom att de används för att väga upp brister i texternas kvaliteter och visar sig få avgörande betydelse för lärarnas beslut om summativ bedömning. Lärargrupperna uppvisar sinsemellan en betydande variation avseende vad de grundar summativa bedömningar av elevers skrivande på och textkvaliteter jämförs snarare med varandra än uttrycks som grader av måluppfyllelse.

Keywords
Writing assessment, summative assessment, assessment norms, writing instructions, Skrivbedömning, bedömningsnormer, summativ bedömning, svenskämnesdidaktik
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Research subject
Language Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-154225 (URN)
Available from: 2018-04-04 Created: 2018-04-04 Last updated: 2019-03-06Bibliographically approved
3. Är vi överens om det? Samspel och samstämmighet i svensklärares bedömningssamtal om gymnasieelevers skrivande
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Är vi överens om det? Samspel och samstämmighet i svensklärares bedömningssamtal om gymnasieelevers skrivande
2018 (Swedish)In: Nordic Journal of Literacy Research, E-ISSN 2464-1596, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article reports on a qualitative study of the interaction in Swedish teachers’ discussions about summative assessment of students’ writing. Interactional patterns of dominance, dynamics and coherens in the decision-making processes are described and analyzed, comparing the degree of assessment consistency between and within the groups. The analysis reveals a high degree of consistency within each teacher group’s discussion. However, the assessments that individual teachers make after the discussions comply only to some extent with the group’s decisions. The least degree of consistency was shown by the teacher group who seemed the most consistent in the discussions. Decision-making processes in these discussions are characterized by low intensity, where few assessment alternatives are being considered. In teacher group discussions characterized by higher intensity, a variety of suggestions for assessment are made by the teachers. The individual teachers' assessments in those groups are more consistent with the group's decisions. Meanwhile, the overall assessment consistency between the teachers was found to be low.

Abstract [sv]

Artikeln beskriver svensklärares interaktion och samstämmighet i samtal om summativ bedömning av gymnasieelevers skrivande. I ett dialogiskt perspektiv (Linell, 2011) undersöks interaktionella mönster avseende dominans, dynamik och koherens i tre svensklärargruppers bedömningssamtal. Dessa interaktionella mönster ställs i relation till uttryck för samstämmighet inom och mellan lärargrupperna. Resultatet visar att lärarna uttrycker hög grad av samstämmighet i bedömningssamtalen men att de bedömningar som lärarna gör enskilt i anslutning till samtalen enbart till viss del överensstämmer med gruppens beslut. Lägst grad av samstämmighet uppvisar den lärargrupp som i samtalen framstod som mest samstämmig. Där kännetecknas beslutsprocesserna av låg intensitet genom att få alternativ till bedömningar prövas. I de lärargrupper där intensiteten är högre genom att flera lärare styr samtalet i olika riktningar och där lärarna tillsammans prövar flera olika förslag på bedömning överensstämmer även enskilda lärares bedömningar i högre grad med gruppens beslut. Bedömningsöverensstämmelsen mellan lärargrupperna är däremot låg.

Keywords
Writing assessment, social moderation, decision-making processes, summative assessment, Skrivbedömning, beslutsprocesser, summativ bedömning, sambedömning, samstämmighet
National Category
Languages and Literature
Research subject
Language Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-154226 (URN)10.23865/njlr.v4.1050 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-04-04 Created: 2018-04-04 Last updated: 2018-04-23Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

l: Samtal om skrivbedömning(572 kB)585 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 572 kBChecksum SHA-512
48b2eca4809de86f9522b6dfe7f72ba2ed1ca419cf59e2d62175f56e03fe7156e10542483d2179902317acba53512fa2134e8e2f3907dca3160dc6a7bd179837
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Blomqvist, Per
By organisation
Department of Language Education
Languages and Literature

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 585 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 10252 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf