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Contaminated sediments: Methods to assess release and toxicity of organic chemical mixtures
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
2017 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Bottom sediments around the world store large amounts of legacy hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs), forming mixtures of unknown chemical composition. Primary emissions to the environment of many HOCs have been reduced as a consequence of regulation. However, HOCs may be released from the sediments to water and biota, and there is therefore a risk of negative effects on local ecosystems. The activity of benthic organisms can enhance the sediment-to-water flux of HOCs, a process called bioturbation. Few in situ assessments of the sediment-to-water flux are available in the scientific literature, and the effect of bioturbation on the sediment-to-water flux of HOCs has not been studied in the field. Thus, there is a need to improve in situ methods for direct determination of sediments as a source of HOCs to water, and thereby include the effect of bioturbation. In Paper I, a benthic flow-through chamber was developed for environmentally realistic in situ assessments of the sediment-to-water flux. In Paper II, the sediment-to-water flux of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was assessed using the flow-through chamber at four sites on the Swedish Baltic Sea coast. The sediments at all four sites acted as sources of PAHs to water. In the same study, potential effects of bioturbation, with an increase of the sediment-to-water flux by up to one order of magnitude, were observed at sites with bioturbating organisms. In the past, assessing the toxicity of HOCs has been challenging due to difficulties in maintaining stable exposure concentrations of the test chemical. In Paper III, a passive dosing method, where the test chemical partitions from a polymer (silicone) to the aquatic exposure medium, was developed and tested for chronic exposure. A stable exposure concentration could be maintained, and the chronic toxicity to the sediment-dwelling harpacticoid Nitocra spinipes of chronic exposure to triclosan was assessed in a 6-week population development test. In Paper IV, a passive sampling and dosing method was developed and used to assess the toxicity of an environmental chemical mixture of bioavailable sediment-associated HOCs transferred from a contaminated sediment to the laboratory-based bioassay. The passive sampling and dosing method can be used to assess the toxicity of environmental mixtures of chemicals at environmentally realistic concentrations to which ecosystems are constantly exposed.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Stockholm: Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University , 2017. , 183 s.
Emneord [en]
Sediment, Hydrophobic organic contaminants, Flux, Bioturbation, Passive sampling, Passive dosing, Mixture toxicity
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
tillämpad miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-149084ISBN: 978-91-7797-095-8 (tryckt)ISBN: 978-91-7797-096-5 (digital)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-149084DiVA: diva2:1160220
Disputas
2018-01-12, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Forskningsfinansiär
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2012–1211
Merknad

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Manuscript.

Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-12-20 Laget: 2017-11-24 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06bibliografisk kontrollert
Delarbeid
1. In situ benthic flow-through chambers to determine sediment-to-water fluxes of legacy hydrophobic organic contaminants
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>In situ benthic flow-through chambers to determine sediment-to-water fluxes of legacy hydrophobic organic contaminants
Vise andre…
2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 231, 854-862 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Contaminated sediment can release hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) and thereby act as a secondary source of primarily legacy hazardous substances to the water column. There is therefore a need for assessments of the release of HOCs from contaminated sediment for prioritization of management actions. In situ assessment of HOC sediment-to-water flux is currently done with (closed) benthic flux chambers, which have a sampling time exceeding one month. During this time, the water inside the chamber is depleted of oxygen and the effect of bioturbation on the sediment-to-water release of HOCs is largely ignored. Here we present a novel benthic flux chamber, which measures sediment-to-water flux of legacy HOCs within days, and includes the effect of bioturbation since ambient oxygen levels inside the chamber are maintained by continuous pumping of water through the chamber. This chamber design allows for sediment-to-water flux measurements under more natural conditions. The chamber design was tested in a contaminated Baltic Sea bay. Measured fluxes were 62–2300 ng m−2 d−1 for individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 5.5–150 ng m−2 d−1 for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). These fluxes were 3–23 times (PAHs) and 12–74 times (PCBs) higher than fluxes measured with closed benthic chambers deployed in parallel at the same location. We hypothesize that the observed difference in HOC flux between the two chamber designs are partly an effect of bioturbation. This hypothesized effect of bioturbation was in accordance with literature data from experimental studies.

Emneord
Flux, Sediment, Benthic chamber, Bioturbation, Bioirrigation, Flöden, sediment, bottenkammare, bioturbation
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
tillämpad miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-148955 (URN)10.1016/j.envpol.2017.08.086 (DOI)000414881000087 ()
Forskningsfinansiär
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2012-1211
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-11-14 Laget: 2017-11-14 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-11bibliografisk kontrollert
2. What the flux? – Field assessment of sediment-to-water fluxes of PAHs on the Swedish Baltic Sea coast and the impact of bioturbation
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>What the flux? – Field assessment of sediment-to-water fluxes of PAHs on the Swedish Baltic Sea coast and the impact of bioturbation
Vise andre…
(engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
Emneord
Sediment, Flux, PAH, Bioturbation
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
tillämpad miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-149083 (URN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-11-15 Laget: 2017-11-15 Sist oppdatert: 2017-11-24bibliografisk kontrollert
3. Passive dosing of triclosan in multigeneration tests with copepods – stable exposure concentrations and effects at the low μg/L range
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Passive dosing of triclosan in multigeneration tests with copepods – stable exposure concentrations and effects at the low μg/L range
Vise andre…
2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 36, nr 5, 1254-1260 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Ecotoxicity testing is a crucial component of chemical risk assessment. Still, due to methodological difficulties related to controlling exposure concentrations over time, data on long-term effects of organic chemicals at low concentrations are limited. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to test the applicability of passive dosing to maintain stable concentrations of the organochlorine bacteriocide triclosan in the water phase during a 6-wk multigeneration population development test with the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes. Triclosan was loaded into silicone (1000 mg), which was used as passive dosing phase in the exposure vials. The distribution ratio for triclosan between silicone and water (Dsilicone-water) was 10466 +/- 1927. A population development test was conducted at 3 concentration levels of triclosan that were measured to be 3 mu g/L to 5 mu g/L, 7 mu g/L to 11 mu g/L and 16 mu g/L to 26 mu g/L. The results demonstrate that passive dosing is applicable for long-term ecotoxicity testing of organic chemicals, including during significant growth of the test organism population. Shifts in the demographic structure of the population during exposure suggest the most severe effects were exerted on juvenile development. Progressively lower development index values in the populations exposed to increasing triclosan concentrations suggest developmental retardation. The results further stress the need for chronic exposure during ecotoxicity testing in chemical risk assessment because even the most sensitive endpoint was not significant until after 7 d of exposure.

Emneord
Passive dosing, Triclosan, Chronic toxicity, Silicone, Exposure
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
tillämpad miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-144864 (URN)10.1002/etc.3649 (DOI)000402302300017 ()27731510 (PubMedID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-06-29 Laget: 2017-06-29 Sist oppdatert: 2017-11-24bibliografisk kontrollert
4. Transferring mixtures of chemicals from sediment to a bioassay using silicone-based passive sampling and dosing
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Transferring mixtures of chemicals from sediment to a bioassay using silicone-based passive sampling and dosing
Vise andre…
2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 19, nr 11, 1404-1413 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Environmental mixtures of chemicals consist of a countless number of compounds with unknown identity and quantity. Yet, chemical regulation is mainly built around the assessment of single chemicals. Existing frameworks for assessing the toxicity of mixtures require that both the chemical composition and quantity are known. Quantitative analyses of the chemical composition of environmental mixtures are however extremely challenging and resource-demanding. Bioassays may therefore serve as a useful approach for investigating the combined toxicity of environmental mixtures of chemicals in a cost-efficient and holistic manner. In this study, an unknown environmental mixture of bioavailable semi-hydrophobic to hydrophobic chemicals was sampled from a contaminated sediment in a coastal Baltic Sea area using silicone polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as an equilibrium passive sampler. The chemical mixture was transferred to a PDMS-based passive dosing system, and its applicability was demonstrated using green algae Tetraselmis suecica in a cell viability assay. The proportion of dead cells increased significantly with increasing exposure level and in a dose–response manner. At an ambient concentration, the proportion of dead cells in the population was nearly doubled compared to the control; however, the difference was non-significant due to high inter-replicate variability and a low number of replicates. The validation of the test system regarding equilibrium sampling, loading efficiency into the passive dosing polymer, stability of the mixture composition, and low algal mortality in control treatments demonstrates that combining equilibrium passive sampling and passive dosing is a promising tool for investigating the toxicity of bioavailable semi-hydrophobic and hydrophobic chemicals in complex environmental mixtures.

Emneord
Passive sampling, passive dosing, mixture toxicity
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
tillämpad miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-149081 (URN)10.1039/C7EM00228A (DOI)000415331100004 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-11-15 Laget: 2017-11-15 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-11bibliografisk kontrollert

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