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Parents, Children and Childbearing
Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. (Stockholm University Demography Unit)
2016 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

This doctoral thesis provides a set of studies of social influences on fertility timing. Swedish register data are used to link individuals to their parents and siblings, thereby allowing the study of impacts of family of origin, social background, and parental death on fertility. The Swedish Medical Birth Register is used to investigate the effect of mode of delivery on higher order births. The thesis consists of an introductory chapter with an overview of the consequences and predictors of the timing of childbearing, and a theoretical framework to explain these relationships. This chapter also includes a section where the contribution to existing knowledge, the relation of the findings to life course theory, and suggestion for further research are discussed. This chapter is followed by four original empirical studies. The first study applies sister and brother correlations to investigate and estimate the impact of family of origin on fertility. It shows that family of origin matters for fertility timing and final family size. The study also shows that the overall importance of family of origin has not changed over the approximately twenty birth cohorts that were studied. The second study introduces three dimensions of social background - occupational class, status, and education - into fertility research. It suggests that social background, independent of individuals’ own characteristics, matters for the timing of first birth and the risk of childlessness. The study also shows that different dimensions of social background should not be used interchangeably. The third study uses the Swedish Medical Birth Register to investigate the effect of mode of delivery on the propensity and birth interval of subsequent childbearing. It demonstrates that mode of delivery has an impact on the progression to the second and third births but that a first delivery by vacuum extraction does not reduce the propensity of subsequent childbearing to the same extent as a first delivery by emergency or elective caesarean section. The fourth study explores the effects of parental death on adult children's fertility. The findings reveal that parental death during reproductive ages can affect children’s fertility. The effects are moderated by the gender of the child and when in the life course bereavement occurs. The combined output of these four studies provides evidence that human fertility behavior is embedded in social relationships with kin and friends throughout life. Family of origin, social background, an older sibling's birth, and bereavement following parental death influence the adult child's fertility. These findings add knowledge to previous research on intergenerational and social network influences in fertility.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Stockholm: Department of Sociology, Stockholm University , 2016. , 95 s.
Serie
Stockholm University Demography Unit, ISSN 1404-2304 ; 14
Nyckelord [en]
Demography, Sociology, Fertility, Intergenerational transmission, Intergenerational influences, Social background, Parental death, Timing of first birth, Mode of delivery, Sibling correlation, Event history analysis, Childlessness, Sweden
Nationell ämneskategori
Sociologi
Forskningsämne
sociologisk demografi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-125936ISBN: 978-91-7649-318-2 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-125936DiVA: diva2:896101
Disputation
2016-02-26, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Handledare
Forskningsfinansiär
Vetenskapsrådet, 2010-0831Vetenskapsrådet, 340-2013-5164Vetenskapsrådet, 349-2007-8701
Tillgänglig från: 2016-02-03 Skapad: 2016-01-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-02-17Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. Family influence in fertility: A longitudinal analysis of sibling correlations in first birth risk and completed fertility among Swedish men and women
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Family influence in fertility: A longitudinal analysis of sibling correlations in first birth risk and completed fertility among Swedish men and women
2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 29, 233-246 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND The intergenerational transmission of fertility has received much attention in demography. This has been done by estimating the correlation between parents' and offsprings' fertility. An alternative method that provides a more comprehensive account of the role of family background - sibling correlations - has not been used before. OBJECTIVE I estimate the overall importance of family background on entry into parenthood and completed fertility and whether it changed over time. Furthermore, I compare the intergenerational correlation in completed fertility with corresponding sibling correlations. METHODS Brother and sister correlations in first birth hazard and in final family size were estimated using multi-level event-history and multi-level linear regression on Swedish longitudinal register data. RESULTS The overall variation in fertility that can be explained by family of origin is approximately 15%-25% for women and 10%-15% for men. The overall importance of the family of origin has not changed over the approximately twenty birth cohorts that were studied (1940-63 for women, 1940-58 for men). Parents' completed fertility accounts for only a small share of the total family background effect on completed fertility. CONCLUSIONS This study contributes to the existing understanding of intergenerational transition of fertility, both methodologically, by introducing a new and powerful method to study the overall importance of family of origin, and substantially, by estimating the overall importance of family of origin and its development over time. A non-negligible proportion of the variation in fertility can be attributed to family of origin and this effect has remained stable over twenty birth cohorts.

Nationell ämneskategori
Sociologi
Forskningsämne
sociologisk demografi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-93564 (URN)10.4054/DemRes.2013.29.9 (DOI)000323032200001 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2013-09-11 Skapad: 2013-09-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-06Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Social Background and Becoming a Parent in Sweden: A Register-Based Study of the Effect of Social Background on Childbearing in Sweden
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Social Background and Becoming a Parent in Sweden: A Register-Based Study of the Effect of Social Background on Childbearing in Sweden
2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 31, nr 4, 417-444 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, I introduce three measures of social background, namely occupational class, social status, and parental education, into fertility research. The objective is to examine whether these dimensions of social background affect entry into parenthood even after controlling for several potential pathways. I estimate event history models on first birth rates using data, which include all Swedes born in 1960. The results show that each of the three dimensions of social background has a clear bivariate association with the risk of becoming a parent, both for men and for women. Parental education has the strongest effect of class and status background, and the latter two do not affect the entry into fatherhood when the effects of all dimensions of social background are estimated simultaneously. Much of the remaining association between social background and fertility persists when controlling for own educational history, mother's age at first birth, and father's mean incomes. The results also show that higher social background leads to postponement of childbearing but that it has no effect on the final likelihood of ever become a parent. The influence of social background on fertility is stronger for women than for men.

Nyckelord
Social background, Stratification, Intergenerational transmission of fertility, Class reproduction
Nationell ämneskategori
Sociologi
Forskningsämne
sociologisk demografi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-123336 (URN)10.1007/s10680-015-9346-0 (DOI)000363243100004 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2015-11-26 Skapad: 2015-11-24 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-01Bibliografiskt granskad
3. Mode of delivery and the probability of subsequent childbearing: a population-based register study
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Mode of delivery and the probability of subsequent childbearing: a population-based register study
2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 1470-0328, E-ISSN 1471-0528, Vol. 122, nr 12, 1593-1600 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To investigate the relationship between mode of first delivery and probability of subsequent childbearing.

Design: Population-based study.

Setting: Nationwide study in Sweden.

Population: A cohort of 771 690 women who delivered their first singleton infant in Sweden between 1992 and 2010.

Methods: Using Cox's proportional-hazards regression models, risks of subsequent childbearing were compared across four modes of delivery. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated, using 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).

Main outcome measures: Probability of having a second and third child; interpregnancy interval.

Results: Compared with women who had a spontaneous vaginal first delivery, women who delivered by vacuum extraction were less likely to have a second pregnancy (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.95–0.97), and the probabilities of a second childbirth were substantially lower among women with a previous emergency caesarean section (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.84–0.86) or an elective caesarean section (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.80–0.83). There were no clinically important differences in the median time between first and second pregnancy by mode of first delivery. Compared with women younger than 30 years of age, older women were more negatively affected by a vacuum extraction with respect to the probability of having a second child. A primary vacuum extraction decreased the probability of having a third child by 4%, but having two consecutive vacuum extraction deliveries did not further alter the probability.

Conclusions: A first delivery by vacuum extraction does not reduce the probability of subsequent childbearing to the same extent as a first delivery by emergency or elective caesarean section.

Nyckelord
Elective caesarean section, emergency caesarean section, mode of delivery, subsequent childbearing, vacuum extraction
Nationell ämneskategori
Sociologi (exklusive socialt arbete, socialpsykologi och socialantropologi) Reproduktionsmedicin och gynekologi
Forskningsämne
sociologisk demografi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-123995 (URN)10.1111/1471-0528.13021 (DOI)000363729300032 ()25135574 (PubMedID)
Tillgänglig från: 2015-12-09 Skapad: 2015-12-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-01Bibliografiskt granskad
4. Does Parental Death Affect Fertility? A Register-Based Study of the Effect of Parental Death on Adult Children's Childbearing Behavior in Sweden
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Does Parental Death Affect Fertility? A Register-Based Study of the Effect of Parental Death on Adult Children's Childbearing Behavior in Sweden
2016 (Engelska)Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Even though fertility and mortality are two of demography’s most researched topics, no prior study has examined at the micro level whether parental death influencesadult children’s fertility. Macro-level studies have shown that rapid increases in mortality can affect fertility rates. Parental death has also been linked to negative psychological and physical outcomes, reduced relationship quality, and making a bereaved child attach more importance to his/her family. This study applies event history techniques to Swedish multi-generation registers containing 1.5 million individuals with to micro data on mortality and fertility to investigate short-term (first birth risk) and long-term (childlessness at age 45) effects of parental death on adult children's fertility. The principal finding is that parental death during reproductive age affects children’s fertility and this effect is mainly short-term. The effects differ to some degree between men and women and depend on when in the life course the bereavement happens.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Stockholm: Department of Sociology, Stockholm University, 2016. 30 s.
Serie
Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, ISSN 0281-8728 ; 2016:01
Nyckelord
Fertility, Mortality, Intergenerational influences, Parental death, Timing of first birth, Event history analysis, Life course theory, Linked lives
Nationell ämneskategori
Sociologi
Forskningsämne
sociologisk demografi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-125944 (URN)
Forskningsfinansiär
Vetenskapsrådet, 2010-0831Vetenskapsrådet, 340-2013-5164Vetenskapsrådet, 349-2007-8701
Tillgänglig från: 2016-01-20 Skapad: 2016-01-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-01-26Bibliografiskt granskad

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