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Efficiency Fluctuations in Microscopic Machines
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
Number of Authors: 42019 (English)In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 122, no 14, article id 140601Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nanoscale machines are strongly influenced by thermal fluctuations, contrary to their macroscopic counterparts. As a consequence, even the efficiency of such microscopic machines becomes a fluctuating random variable. Using geometric properties and the fluctuation theorem for the total entropy production, a universal theory of efficiency fluctuations at long times, for machines with a finite state space, was developed by Verley et al. [Nat. Commun. 5, 4721 (2014); Phys. Rev. E 90, 052145 (2014)]. We extend this theory to machines with an arbitrary state space. Thereby, we work out more detailed prerequisites for the universal features and explain under which circumstances deviations can occur. We also illustrate our findings with exact results for two nontrivial models of colloidal engines.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 122, no 14, article id 140601
National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
Theoretical Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-168343DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.140601ISI: 000463902800004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-168343DiVA, id: diva2:1314405
Available from: 2019-05-08 Created: 2019-05-08 Last updated: 2020-05-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics at the microscopic scales
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-equilibrium thermodynamics at the microscopic scales
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

An inherent feature of small systems in contact with thermal reservoirs, be it a pollen grain in water, or an active microbe flagellum, is fluctuations. Even with advanced microscopic techniques, distinguishing active, non-equilibrium processes defined by a constant dissipation of energy to the environment from passive, equilibrium processes is a very challenging task and a vastly developing field of research. For small (microscopic) systems in contact with thermal reservoirs, the experimental / theoretic framework that addresses these fundamental questions, is called stochastic thermodynamics.

In this thesis, we study the stochastic thermodynamics of microscopic machines with colloidal particles as working substances. In particular, we use a path integral based framework to characterize the fluctuations of thermodynamic observables, such as Work, Heat and Entropy production in colloidal heat engines. We obtain exact analytic solutions at finite operational times and the results reveal model independent features of Work and Efficiency fluctuations.

We also discuss the thermodynamic uncertainty relations, which relate current fluctuations in non-equilibrium steady states to the average rate of entropy production. Based on this relation, as well as exact analytical solutions for explicit models, we propose a simple and effective way to infer dissipation from current fluctuations in non-equilibrium systems, from short empirical trajectories.

Finally, we conclude with a discussion on possible extensions of our results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Physics, Stockholm University, 2020. p. 86
Keywords
Non-equilibrium statistical Physics, entropy production
National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
Theoretical Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-181029 (URN)978-91-7911-174-8 (ISBN)978-91-7911-175-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-06-15, sal FB42, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2020-05-19 Created: 2020-04-24 Last updated: 2020-05-25Bibliographically approved

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