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Genotoxicity and DNA damage signaling in response to complex mixtures of PAHs in biomass burning particulate matter from cashew nut roasting
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1598-7093
2020 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 256, article id 113381Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Approximately 3 billion people world-wide are exposed to air pollution from biomass burning. Herein, particulate matter(PM) emitted from artisanal cashew nut roasting, an important economic activity worldwide, was investigated. This study focused on: i) chemical characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated (oxy-) PAHs; ii) intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS); iii) genotoxic effects and time- and dose-dependent activation of DNA damage signaling, and iv) differential expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, inflammation, cell cycle arrest and DNA repair, using A549 lung cells. Among the PAHs, chrysene, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benz[a]anthracene showed the highest concentrations (7.8–10 ng/m3), while benzanthrone and 9,10-anthraquinone were the most abundant oxy-PAHs. Testing of PM extracts was based on B[a]P equivalent doses (B[a]Peq). IC50 values for viability were 5.7 and 3.0 nM B[a]Peq at 24 h and 48 h, respectively. At these low doses, we observed a time- and dose-dependent increase in intracellular levels of ROS, genotoxicity (DNA strand breaks) and DNA damage signaling (phosphorylation of the protein checkpoint kinase 1 – Chk1). In comparison, effects of B[a]P alone was observed at micromolar range. To our knowledge, no previous study has demonstrated an activation of pChk1, a biomarker used to estimate the carcinogenic potency of PAHs in vitro, in lung cells exposed to cashew nut roasting extracts. Sustained induction of expression of several important stress response mediators of xenobiotic metabolism (CYP1A1, CYP1B1), ROS and pro-inflammatory response (IL-8, TNF-α, IL-2,COX2), and DNA damage response (CDKN1A and DDB2) was also identified. In conclusion, our data show high potency of cashew nut roasting PM to induce cellular stress including genotoxicity, and more potently when compared to B[a]P alone. Our study provides new data that will help elucidate the toxic effects of low-levels of PAH mixtures from air PM generated by cashew nut roasting.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2020. Vol. 256, article id 113381
Keywords [en]
Biomass burning, Cashew nut roasting, Air particulate matter, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Genotoxicity, DNA damage response
National Category
Cell Biology Genetics Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-174829DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113381ISI: 000504757200038OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-174829DiVA, id: diva2:1360442
Available from: 2019-10-13 Created: 2019-10-13 Last updated: 2020-02-05Bibliographically approved

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de Oliveira Galvão, Marcos FelipeSadiktsis, IoannisDreij, Kristian
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