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Cloud microphysical background for the Israel-4 cloud seeding experiment
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM). The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.
Antal upphovsmän: 42015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Atmospheric research, ISSN 0169-8095, E-ISSN 1873-2895, Vol. 158-159, s. 122-138Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The modest amount of rainfall in Israel occurs in winter storms that bring convective clouds from the Mediterranean Sea when the cold post frontal air interacts with its relatively warm surface. These clouds were seeded in the Israel-1 and Israel-2 cloud glaciogenic seeding experiments, which have shown statistically significant positive effect of added rainfall of at least 13% in northern Israel, whereas the Israel-3 experiment showed no added rainfall in the south. This was followed by operational seeding in the north since 1975. The lack of physical evidence for the causes of the positive effects in the north caused a lack of confidence in the statistical results and led to the Israel-4 randomized seeding experiment in northern Israel. This experiment started in the winter of 2013/14. The main difference from the previous experiments is the focus on the orographic clouds in the catchment of the Sea of Galilee. The decision to commence the experiment was partially based on evidence supporting the existence of seeding potential, which is reported here. Aircraft and satellite microphysical and dynamic measurements of the clouds document the critical roles of aerosols, especially sea spray, on cloud microstructure and precipitation forming processes. It was found that the convective clouds over sea and coastal areas are naturally seeded hygroscopically by sea spray and develop precipitation efficiently. The diminution of the large sea spray aerosols farther inland along with the increase in aerosol concentrations causes the clouds to develop precipitation more slowly. The short time available for the precipitation forming processes in super-cooled orographic clouds over the Golan Heights farthest inland represents the best glaciogenic seeding potential.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2015. Vol. 158-159, s. 122-138
Nyckelord [en]
Cloud seeding, Cloud microphysics, Orographic clouds, Precipitation, CCN
Nationell ämneskategori
Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-176216DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2015.02.007ISI: 000352328900011OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-176216DiVA, id: diva2:1373732
Tillgänglig från: 2019-11-28 Skapad: 2019-11-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-11-28Bibliografiskt granskad

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Rosenfeld, Daniel
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Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM)
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Atmospheric research
Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap

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