Ändra sökning
RefereraExporteraLänk till posten
Permanent länk

Direktlänk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Identification of Chain Scission Products Released to Water by Plastic Exposed to Ultraviolet Light
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.ORCID-id: 0000-0003-2562-7339
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology Letters, E-ISSN 2328-8930, Vol. 5, nr 5, s. 272-276Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Buoyant plastic in the marine environment is exposed to sunlight, oxidants, and physical stress, which may lead to degradation of the plastic polymer and the release of compounds that are potentially hazardous. We report the development of a laboratory protocol that simulates the exposure of plastic floating in the marine environment to ultraviolet light (UV) and nontarget analysis to identify degradation products of plastic polymers in water. Plastic pellets [polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, and poly(ethylene terephthalate)] suspended in water were exposed to a UV light source for 5 days. Organic chemicals in the water were concentrated by solid phase extraction and then analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry using a nontarget approach with a C18 LC column coupled to a Q Exactive Orbitrap HF mass spectrometer. We designed a data analysis scheme to identify chemicals that are likely chain scission products from degradation of the plastic polymers. For all four polymers, we found homologous series of low-molecular weight polymer fragments with oxidized end groups. In total, we tentatively identified 22 degradation products, which are mainly dicarboxylic acids.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2018. Vol. 5, nr 5, s. 272-276
Nationell ämneskategori
Miljövetenskap
Forskningsämne
tillämpad miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-155574DOI: 10.1021/acs.estlett.8b00119ISI: 000431927300009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-155574DiVA, id: diva2:1201217
Tillgänglig från: 2018-04-25 Skapad: 2018-04-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-25Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Chemical Pollutants Released to the Marine Environment by Degradation of Plastic Debris
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Chemical Pollutants Released to the Marine Environment by Degradation of Plastic Debris
2018 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Since the beginning of the mass production in the 1940s, plastic has been manufactured in quickly increasing amounts. Plastic debris accumulates in the environment and lately much attention has been drawn to the pollution in the world’s oceans. Despite the rapid development and ubiquitous presence of plastic, degradation in the marine environment and potential risks associated with plastic are not fully understood. Thus, these knowledge gaps were addressed in this thesis, which adds information about exposure and hazards of marine plastic debris.

Although sampling studies have been conducted all over the world, the concentrations of plastic debris in the Baltic Sea have hardly been investigated. In Paper I, the level and distribution of plastic debris in the Stockholm Archipelago were assessed. Plastic concentrations were higher close to suspected point sources compared to remote areas. Fibers accounted for the most common form and the predominant polymer types were polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE).

In Paper II, the literature was critically reviewed for the most important degradation pathways for plastic under environmentally relevant conditions. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, leading to photo-oxidation, is the most important initiating factor for buoyant plastic. Consequently, a UV lamp was used in Paper III for an artificial weathering setup in the laboratory to degrade pristine plastics and analyze the chemical leachates by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for degradation products using a nontarget approach. Carboxylic acids and dicarboxylic acids of polymer fragments were the most commonly identified degradation products of the plastic polymers, confirming predictions made in Paper II.

To evaluate potential hazards posed by leachates from weathering plastic debris to marine organisms, an acute toxicity screening study with Nitocra spinipes was conducted in Paper IV. Field-exposed plastic and the corresponding newly purchased plastic were artificially aged with the same weathering setup as in Paper III. Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and PP leachates were generally most toxic, while leachates from polystyrene (PS) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were least toxic among the tested materials. For plastics, which were supposed to contain only few additives, we observed no difference in toxicity between leachates from the field-exposed and the newly purchased plastic. However, the other plastic products exposed to the marine environment were more toxic than their corresponding newly bought products. This indicates that the toxicity of the leachates not only depends on the polymer type, but also on the weathering condition of the plastic.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Stockholm: Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2018. s. 36
Nyckelord
Plastic, microplastic, degradation, leachates, weathering, photo-oxidation, marine environment, toxicity
Nationell ämneskategori
Miljövetenskap
Forskningsämne
tillämpad miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-155581 (URN)978-91-7797-167-2 (ISBN)978-91-7797-168-9 (ISBN)
Disputation
2018-06-12, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Anmärkning

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript.

Tillgänglig från: 2018-05-18 Skapad: 2018-04-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-05-09Bibliografiskt granskad

Open Access i DiVA

Fulltext saknas i DiVA

Övriga länkar

Förlagets fulltext

Sök vidare i DiVA

Av författaren/redaktören
Gewert, BeritPlassmann, MerleSandblom, OskarMacLeod, Matthew
Av organisationen
Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi
I samma tidskrift
Environmental Science and Technology Letters
Miljövetenskap

Sök vidare utanför DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetricpoäng

doi
urn-nbn
Totalt: 274 träffar
RefereraExporteraLänk till posten
Permanent länk

Direktlänk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf