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Vilan i förskolan 1910-2013: Visuella material och visuell metodologi
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0204-6371
2018 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Naptime in Preschool 1910–2013 : Visual materials and visual methodology (English)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis is to explore preschool naptime during the period 1910–2013 through visual materials, films and photographs produced by different actors for various purposes at various historical times, and to develop a visual methodology that works with complex visual materials. Even though naptime is central to everyday life in preschool, it is an activity that is rarely a focus of Early Childhood Education research.  

The empirical data derives from two separate but interrelated studies, the first a video ethnographic field study and the second an archival ethnographic study. Both studies include films and photographs that visualise the material environments and social interactions that take place during preschool naptime.

A theoretical framework based on ethnomethodology, visual studies, childhood studies and the history of childhood studies is used. The concept the look of is a theoretical and analytical focus as the photographic image contains visual information about what things and actions look like. The look of children’s and adults’ participation in naptime, the material objects and the preschool environment are the focus when scrutinising the visual data of the study to gain knowledge about how embodied actions, along with the material and spatial design of the preschool environment, form practices at naptime. The thesis takes a post-positivist stance towards the photographic image.

A transdisciplinary methodology, the visual remake, is developed for visual analysis and is used as a tool for comparisons, visualisation of results and reflection. A visual remake maintains the visual aspects of the data in order to keep them visible throughout the research process. It is a tool that visualises observable findings and conceptualises a reflection process through images, and not exclusively via the written word.

The study provides knowledge about everyday life in preschool. The results show how the material and spatial organisation of the room and the participants’ embodied actions in this environment constitute naptime in both historical and contemporary preschools. There are recurrent patterns in the social interaction, as well as similarities in the design of the environment that are stable over time. These are the ways in which the participants use their bodies and interact through embodied interactions. The comparative visual analyses, focusing on continuity and change, suggest that some of these practices can be theorised as path-dependent. The present-day study shows that children constitute a peer culture within naptime, often through secondary adjustments to institutional and adult-structured order. Although the ideal naptime is visualised in the historical materials, it is possible to trace the same sort of naptime peer culture. There are features in the design of the beds used during preschool naptime that are typical of the preschool institution, and this design and the overall organisation of naptime have a path-dependence to ideals in the half-day preschools.

Methodologically, the thesis expands our knowledge of how different visual materials can serve as sources in ECE research and how a research design focusing on the comparison of present-day and historical data opens up space for new research questions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen, Stockholms universitet , 2018. , p. 84
Keywords [en]
Early childhood Education and Care, Naptime, Visual Remake, Preschool history, Ethnography, Visual analysis, Ethnomethodology
Keywords [sv]
förskola, vila, visuell remake, förskolehistoria, etnografi, visuell analys, etnometodologi
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Early Childhood Education
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-161336ISBN: 978-91-7797-372-0 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7797-373-7 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-161336DiVA, id: diva2:1258022
Public defence
2018-12-07, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenhius väg 12, Stockholm, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Manuscript. Paper 3: Manuscript.

Available from: 2018-11-14 Created: 2018-10-23 Last updated: 2018-11-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Små barns sociala liv på vilan: Om deltagande och ordningsskapande i förskolan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Små barns sociala liv på vilan: Om deltagande och ordningsskapande i förskolan
2013 (Swedish)Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
The Social Life of Very Young Children at Naptime : On Participation and Local Order in the Preschool
Abstract [en]

This thesis examines how very young children (1-3 years) organize participation during naptime, a recurrent activity of everyday life in preschools. Focus is on how these children practice their social and cultural understandings of the local order and thus establish various local orders as part of how they shape their peer cultures and the routines of the naptime. An ethnomethodological and conversation analytic (EM/CA) perspective is used to explore the organisation of the local orders oriented to by the children in their participation during naptime. A special interest is directed at how small children use embodied actions and various semiotic resources as they actively take part in this preschool routine.

The data, collected during fieldwork with participant observations, consist of video recordings and field notes. The recordings are analysed using EM/CA methods, including detailed attention to embodied features of interaction along with spatial and material arrangements. Transcriptions of interaction comprise representations of both verbal and visual aspects, e.g. gestures, gaze and movement through the room.

The study shows that naptime involves more than sleep. It is demonstrated how very young children, through interaction with each other and the pedagogues, are active agents in sustaining, creating, re-creating and challenging the local orders of naptime. Through embodied actions and the use of various semiotic resources, the children are able to create time and space for their own peer cultures within this institutional routine. Overall, the study sheds light on the sophisticated ways in which very young children use their knowledge of cultural and institutional routines – the spatial organisation of sleep mattresses, artefacts (e.g. blankets, pacifiers and soft toys) and the sequential structures of the naptime – to constitute spaces for play and joyful interaction with peers and pedagogues. In spite of their sometimes limited vocal language, these very young children are able to use a variety of semiotic resources to constitute their own social life within naptime, often through secondary adjustments to institutional and adult structured order.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier, Department of Education, 2013. p. 123
Series
Pedagogisk forskning i Uppsala, ISSN 0348-3630 ; 166
Keywords
Early childhood Education, Conversation analysis, Ethnomethodology, Play, semiotic resources, Embodiment, Peer Culture, Sleep, toddler, samtalsanalys, etnometodologi, lek, kamratkultur, semiotiska resurser, förkroppsligade handlingar, lokal ordning, sova
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-161368 (URN)978-91-506-2379-6 (ISBN)
Presentation
2013-11-15, Sydney Alrutz salen, Blåsenhus, von Kraemers Allé 1, Uppsala, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-10-23 Created: 2018-10-23 Last updated: 2018-10-23Bibliographically approved
2. Vardagligt samspel och mobila sängar i barnstorlek: en visuell historisk analys av vilan i förskolan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vardagligt samspel och mobila sängar i barnstorlek: en visuell historisk analys av vilan i förskolan
(Swedish)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keywords
naptime, interaction, path-dependency, preschool history, visual analysis, vilan, interaktion, spårberoende, spårbundenhet, förskolehistoria, visuell analys
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Early Childhood Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-161333 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-23 Created: 2018-10-23 Last updated: 2018-10-24Bibliographically approved
3. The visual remake as research methodology for visual analyses: Naptime in preschools as an example
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The visual remake as research methodology for visual analyses: Naptime in preschools as an example
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keywords
historical documentary film, methodology, preschool naptime, social interaction, video ethnography, visual analysis
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Early Childhood Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-161332 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-23 Created: 2018-10-23 Last updated: 2018-10-24Bibliographically approved

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