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Turn-taking and early phonology: Contingency in parent-child interaction and assessment of early speech production
Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. (Stockholm Bablylab)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3279-6328
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis focuses on contingency in parent-child interaction, investigating it in the light of the linguistic capacity of the child and the status of the caregiver. Further, the thesis covers the development of two tools to assess the developmental maturity level of expressive phonology. A functional emergentist perspective on language acquisition is taken, which includes a phonetic perspective on phonological development. Both infant language development and factors that influence parent responsiveness are explored. 

The thesis contains four studies. In the first study, durations of parents’ utterances and pauses in interaction with their 18-month-old infants were related to the infant’s vocabulary size. Recordings of interactions of fifteen children and their parents were made at home in daily life situations. The children were divided into three groups according to their vocabulary size: large, typical or small. The main finding is that parents in the large vocabulary size group responded faster to their children compared to the parents in the typical size vocabulary group, who in turn responded faster than the parents in the small vocabulary size group. 

In study two, duration in vocal turn-taking between 6-month old infants and their caregivers was investigated, in terms of the status of the caregiver and the sex of the infant. Caregivers’ pauses were measured in 10-minute caregiver-infant interactions recorded at home. It was found that primary caregivers responded faster to their infants compared to secondary caregivers, and that in turn, infants responded faster to the primary caregiver than to the secondary caregiver. 

Study three introduces the Word Complexity Measure for Swedish (WCM-SE), a tool for calculating phonological complexity in words or utterances. Calculations are based on ten parameters describing speech structures that are considered phonetically complex to produce. In the development of  the WCM-SE, both language-specific and language-general descriptions of speech development were considered, as well as universal acoustic and aerodynamic principles. 

Study four documents the selection of Swedish words for the word lists in the test Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills for Swedish (PEEPS-SE). The selection was based on criteria of age of acquisition and word complexity, as measured by the WCM-SE. 

The findings presented in this thesis contribute to our knowledge of early interaction and parents’ potential impact on the child’s early language and communication development. Further, the tools developed for the assessment of Swedish are valuable contributions both to the research field of early phonology and to clinical work in Sweden. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University , 2018. , p. 101
Series
PERILUS, ISSN 0282-6690 ; XXVI
Keywords [en]
parent-child interaction, turn-taking, parental responsiveness, phonological development, phonological complexity, assessment of speech production
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Research subject
Phonetics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-61853ISBN: 978-91-7797-498-7 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7797-499-4 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-61853DiVA, id: diva2:1259496
Public defence
2018-12-14, hörsal 12, hus F, Universitetsvägen 10 F, plan 2, Stockholm, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Manuscript.

Available from: 2018-11-21 Created: 2018-10-30 Last updated: 2018-11-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Pause and utterance duration in child-directed speech in relation to child vocabulary size
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pause and utterance duration in child-directed speech in relation to child vocabulary size
2015 (English)In: Journal of Child Language, ISSN 0305-0009, E-ISSN 1469-7602, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 1158-1171Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study compares parental pause and utterance duration in conversations with Swedish speaking children at age 1;6 who have either a large, typical, or small expressive vocabulary, as measured by the Swedish version of the McArthur-Bates CDI. The adjustments that parents do when they speak to children are similar across all three vocabulary groups; they use longer utterances than when speaking to adults, and respond faster to children than they do to other adults. However, overall pause duration varies with the vocabulary size of the children, and as a result durational aspects of the language environment to which the children are exposed differ between groups. Parents of children in the large vocabulary size group respond faster to child utterances than do parents of children in the typical vocabulary size group, who in turn respond faster to child utterances than do parents of children in the small vocabulary size group.

Keywords
first language aqcuisition, parent-child interaction, vocabulary size, pause duration, utterance duration, barns språkutveckling, föräldra-barn-interaktion, ordförrådsstorlek, pauser, yttrandelängd
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Research subject
Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-112375 (URN)10.1017/S0305000914000609 (DOI)000358577400009 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2008-5094Swedish Research Council, 2011-2263Swedish Research Council, 421-2007-6400
Available from: 2015-01-12 Created: 2015-01-12 Last updated: 2018-10-31Bibliographically approved
2. Contingent turn-taking between parents and 6-month-olds: Primary caregivers respond faster than secondary caregivers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contingent turn-taking between parents and 6-month-olds: Primary caregivers respond faster than secondary caregivers
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this study, temporal contingency in parent- infant turn-taking was investigated. Six-month-old infants (n = 14; 7 girls) were recorded when interacting with their primary and secondary caregivers in separate ten-minute sessions. Infant vocalizations and adjacent caregiver utterances were identified in the recordings and duration was calculated for caregiver-infant and infant-caregiver switching pauses. Primary caregivers respond significantly faster to infant vocalizations than do secondary caregivers. Further, infants respond faster to primary caregiver than to secondary caregiver, but the difference failed to reach significance. No effects were found for infant sex. Switching pause duration in interaction between infants and their primary caregiver is shorter than between infants and their secondary caregiver.

Keywords
contingency, switching pauses, turn-taking, parent-infant interaction, pause duration
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Research subject
Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-161505 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-29 Created: 2018-10-29 Last updated: 2018-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. Introducing WCM-SE: The word complexity measure phonetically justified and adapted to Swedish
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introducing WCM-SE: The word complexity measure phonetically justified and adapted to Swedish
2018 (English)In: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, ISSN 0269-9206, E-ISSN 1464-5076, Vol. 32, no 11, p. 1042-1053Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the Word Complexity Measure for Swedish (WCM-SE), an adaptation of the original WCM developed for English by Stoel-Gammon. These measures are used to calculate the phonological complexity of words or vocalizations, based on a number of phonological complexity parameters. Each production receives a complexity score based on how many of the parameters are present in the production.Using phonological complexity scores to measure expressive phonology is suitable for assessing very young children, children with early phonology and children with phonological deficits. It is useful forboth relational and independent analyses and enables comparisons between children and across development.The original WCM uses eight phonological complexity parameters in three domains: word patterns, syllable structures and sound classes. The parameters selected are phonological characteristics that are acquired late in development among English-speaking children.In the WCM-SE, complexity parameters in the domain sound classes were modified or added according to Swedish or universal patterns of phonology development. The parameters' complexity is accounted for in terms of language-general phonetic characteristics.

Keywords
Phonological complexity, phonological development, speech assessment, Word Complexity Measure, Swedish
National Category
Languages and Literature Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-161052 (URN)10.1080/02699206.2018.1493620 (DOI)000446106800005 ()29985657 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-10-16 Created: 2018-10-16 Last updated: 2018-10-31Bibliographically approved
4. The development of a vocabulary for PEEPS – SEprofiles of early expressive phonological skills for Swedish
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The development of a vocabulary for PEEPS – SEprofiles of early expressive phonological skills for Swedish
2018 (English)In: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, ISSN 0269-9206, E-ISSN 1464-5076, Vol. 32, no 9, p. 844-859Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper describes the development of a vocabulary for Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills for Swedish (PEEPS-SE), a tool for assessment of expressive phonology in Swedish-learning children in the age range of 18-36months. PEEPS-SE is the Swedish version of the original PEEPS, Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills, which uses two age-adequate word listsa basic word list (BWL) for the assessment of 18-24-month-old children, to which an expanded word list (EWL) is added for assessment of 24-36-month-old children, or children with more than 250 words in their expressive vocabulary.The selection of words in PEEPS-SE is based on two types of criteria: age of acquisition and phonological complexity. The words also need to be easy to elicit in a natural way in test situations. Vocabulary data previously collected with the Swedish Early Communicative Development Inventory are used for selection of age-adequate words, where the BWL contains words acquired earlier compared to the additional words in the EWL. The latter also contains words that are more phonologically complex compared to those in the BWL. Word complexity was determined by the Swedish version of word complexity measure. PEEPS-SE has made an attempt to match the original version of PEEPS in terms of both assessment method and word selection.

Keywords
Early language acquisition, phonological development, phonological complexity, vocabulary, speech production assessment
National Category
Languages and Literature Pediatrics Other Health Sciences
Research subject
Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-159181 (URN)10.1080/02699206.2018.1445780 (DOI)000440696300004 ()29634359 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-08-22 Created: 2018-08-22 Last updated: 2018-10-31Bibliographically approved

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