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Local adaptation in life history traits and population size estimation of aquatic organisms
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4452-8339
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Human society is dependent on healthy aquatic ecosystems for our basic needs and well-being. Therefore, knowledge about how organisms respond and interact with their environments is pivotal. The Baltic Sea is highly affected by human activity and future populations living in its catchment area will have to respond to multiple set of changing abiotic and biotic predictors.

The first two papers of this thesis focus on local adaptation, adaptive capacity, and the response to changing temperature, salinity, and food conditions of different Eurytemora affinis populations, a ubiquitous zooplankton species in the Baltic Sea. Development time of zooplankton is an important trait and relates to how fast a population can increase in number. Common garden experiments showed that E. affinis populations from warmer southern areas had shorter development time from nauplii to adult at high temperature compared to populations from colder areas, which indicates an adaptation to temperature. The adaptation was explained by a correlation in development time between higher temperatures, 17 and 22.5 °C, while development between a colder temperature, 12 °C, and the two higher temperatures was uncorrelated. This implies that adaption to short development time at high temperature is unlikely for populations originating from cold temperatures. Hence, global warming will be disadvantageous for northern, compared to southern populations. However, development time is heritable and may change under selection, and may improve the competitive advantage of northern populations. The population with the shortest development time had comparably lower survival at high temperature and low food quality. This represents a cost of fast development, and emphasizes the importance of including multiple stressors when investigating potential effects of climate change.

E. affinis inhabits a broad range of habitats from an epi-benthic life in freshwater lakes and river mouths, to pelagic life in estuaries. Paper III aims to link the morphology of different populations to habitat and resource utilization. Results showed that the individuals of a pelagic population were smaller in size and more slender, compared to a littoral population of larger and more fecund individuals. In experimentally constructed benthic and pelagic algae communities, the littoral population produced less offspring than the pelagic population when filamentous benthic diatoms were included. This suggests that filaments disturb their feeding and that littoral populations of E. affinis stay epi-benthic. As pelagic fish typically select larger prey, living close to the bottom probably allows the littoral population to grow larger than the pelagic. These results link morphology to habitat specialization, and show contrasting ecological effects of two E. affinis populations.

Paper IV focuses on the recreational angler’s potential role as a citizen scientist. The pike Esox lucius has a stabilizing role in ecosystems as a top consumer and is highly valued by recreational anglers in European lakes and estuaries. Results showed that recreational angling could be used to estimate population size and connectivity of E. lucius in spatial capture-recapture models. The only prerequisite is that anglers practice catch and release, retain spatial data, and take photos of their caught fish. These results show that data from recreational angling can be of potential use for fisheries managers and researchers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University , 2019. , p. 50
Keywords [en]
local adaptation, intraspecific variation, niche partitioning, life history, global warming, recreational angling, spatial capture–recapture
National Category
Ecology Evolutionary Biology
Research subject
Marine Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-162470ISBN: 978-91-7797-446-8 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7797-447-5 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-162470DiVA, id: diva2:1266622
Public defence
2019-01-11, Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Svante Arrhenius väg 20, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2018-12-19 Created: 2018-11-28 Last updated: 2018-12-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Life-history responses to changing temperature and salinity of the Baltic Sea copepod Eurytemora affinis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life-history responses to changing temperature and salinity of the Baltic Sea copepod Eurytemora affinis
2018 (English)In: Marine Biology, ISSN 0025-3162, E-ISSN 1432-1793, Vol. 165, no 2, article id 30Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To understand the effects of predicted warming and changing salinity of marine ecosystems, it is important to have a good knowledge of species vulnerability and their capacity to adapt to environmental changes. In spring and autumn of 2014, we conducted common garden experiments to investigate how different populations of the copepod Eurytemora affinis from the Baltic Sea respond to varying temperatures and salinity conditions. Copepods were collected in the Stockholm archipelago, Bothnian Bay, and Gulf of Riga (latitude, longitude: 58 degrees 48.19', 17 degrees 37.52'; 65 degrees 10.14', 23 degrees 14.41'; 58 degrees 21.67', 24 degrees 30.83'). Using individuals with known family structure, we investigated within population variation of the reaction norm (genotype and salinity interaction) as a means to measure adaptive capacity. Our main finding was that low salinity has a detrimental effect on development time, the additive effects of high temperature and low salinity have a negative effect on survival, and their interaction has a negative effect on hatching success. We observed no variation in survival and development within populations, and all genotypes had similar reaction norms with higher survival and faster development in higher salinities. This suggests that there is no single genotype that performs better in low salinity or high salinity; instead, the best genotype in any given salinity is best in all salinities. Genotypes with fast development time also had higher survival compared to slow developing genotypes at all salinities. Our results suggest that E. affinis can tolerate close to freshwater conditions also in high temperatures, but with a significant reduction in fitness.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Marine Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-153656 (URN)10.1007/s00227-017-3279-6 (DOI)000424326200001 ()29391649 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-03-07 Created: 2018-03-07 Last updated: 2018-11-28Bibliographically approved
2. Local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity in populations of the Baltic Sea copepod Eurytemora affinis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity in populations of the Baltic Sea copepod Eurytemora affinis
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Evolutionary Biology Ecology
Research subject
Marine Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-162468 (URN)
Available from: 2018-11-27 Created: 2018-11-27 Last updated: 2018-11-28Bibliographically approved
3. Ecosystem Effects of Morphological and Life History Traits in Two Divergent Zooplankton Populations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ecosystem Effects of Morphological and Life History Traits in Two Divergent Zooplankton Populations
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, article id 408Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Little is known about the ecosystem effects of locally adapted populations. The filter feeding copepod Eurytemora affinis is an abundant and important zooplankton in coastal waters that consist of a cryptic species complex with locally adapted populations. We used a mesocosm setup to investigate population and ecosystem interactions of two populations from the Baltic Sea with different morphology and life history traits. One population is laterally wider, larger-sized, more fecund, and have higher growth rate than the other. The experimental ecosystems varied in algae community (pelagic algae, and pelagic algae + benthic diatoms) with two resource supply scenarios. Results showed that the large-sized population is a more effective grazer. In low resource supply the small-sized population starved, whereas the large-sized population was unaffected, resulting in a larger population increase of both nauplii and copepodites than for the small-sized population. Addition of benthic diatoms to the pelagic algae community had much more negative effects on the reproduction of the large-sized population. This suggests that the large-sized population feeds near benthic to a greater extent than the small-sized population, and that filamentous benthic diatoms interfere with the grazing process. Despite the negative effects of benthic diatoms, the large-sized population could maintain similar or higher reproduction than the small-sized population. In addition, the high grazing efficiency of the large-sized population resulted in a different community composition of algae. Specifically, flagellated species and small sized benthic diatoms were more grazed upon by the large-sized population. Our results show that morphologically divergent, yet phylogenetically closely related zooplankton populations can have different ecosystem functions, and in turn have different population increase in response to resource supply and algae community.

Keywords
local adaptation, common gardening experiment, intraspecific variation, ecological-evolutionary dynamics, resource specialization, morphological divergence, niche partitioning, size efficiency
National Category
Ecology Evolutionary Biology
Research subject
Marine Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-162460 (URN)10.3389/fmars.2018.00408 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-11-27 Created: 2018-11-27 Last updated: 2018-11-28Bibliographically approved
4. Recreational anglers as citizen scientists can provide data to estimate population size of pike, Esox lucius
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recreational anglers as citizen scientists can provide data to estimate population size of pike, Esox lucius
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Marine Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-162469 (URN)
Available from: 2018-11-27 Created: 2018-11-27 Last updated: 2018-11-28Bibliographically approved

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