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Labour market participation among young refugees in Sweden and the potential of education: a national cohort study
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7989-6748
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8707-180X
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7576-9410
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6973-0381
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Youth Studies, ISSN 1367-6261, E-ISSN 1469-9680, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 533-550Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This register-based study examined the importance of education on labour market participation among young refugees in Sweden. The study population consisted of unaccompanied (n = 1606) and accompanied refuges (n = 4142), aged 23–26 years in 2006–2010, after 7 years of residence in Sweden. Native Swedish, aged 24 years (n = 347,255) constituted the comparison population, with intercountry adoptees (n = 6689) as an alternative reference group. Gender-stratified multinomial regression models indicated that unaccompanied and accompanied male and female young refugees had higher risks of being in insecure work force and NEET compared to native Swedes with comparable levels of education. However, young refugees and intercountry adoptees with primary education had similar risks of poor labour market outcomes. The educational differences within each group concerning the risk of being in insecure work force were comparable. With the exception of unaccompanied females, secondary education seemed to be less protective against being in NEET among young refugees compared to native Swedes and intercountry adoptees. We conclude that while young refugees face employment disadvantages, education has the potential of mitigating poor labour market outcomes in this group.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 22, no 4, p. 533-550
Keywords [en]
Young refugees, NEET (Neither education, employment, or training), labour market, education, intercountry adoptees
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Public Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-160453DOI: 10.1080/13676261.2018.1521952ISI: 000463076400007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-160453DiVA, id: diva2:1270278
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2012-1190NordForsk, 74 645Available from: 2018-12-12 Created: 2018-12-12 Last updated: 2019-04-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Mental health, substance misuse and labour market participation in teenage refugees in Sweden – A longitudinal perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mental health, substance misuse and labour market participation in teenage refugees in Sweden – A longitudinal perspective
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Aim: To fill the knowledge gap about the importance of contextual factors after resettlement on mental health, substance misuse and labour market participation among young refugees who immigrate to Sweden as teenagers. Methods: Register studies in national registers of national cohorts of young refugees, unaccompanied and accompanied, who settled in Sweden as teenagers. Studies 1-4 used Cox regression models to study the risks of psychiatric care consumption and substance misuse, while Study 5 used multinomial regression to study position on the labour. These findings were compared with peers from the same birth cohorts in the general Swedish population and non-European intercountry adoptees (Studies 2 and 5). Results: The overall results suggest that young accompanied and unaccompanied refugees were more likely to be admitted to psychiatric inpatient and compulsory hospital care, but not outpatient care, with refugees born in the Horn of Africa and Iran having the highest risk (Study 1). Young accompanied and unaccompanied refugees also had higher risk of hospitalization and criminal conviction associated with substance misuse (Study 3). Longer duration of residence in Sweden was associated with increased risks of outpatient care (Study 1) and hospitalization related to substance misuse (studies 3 and 4). These increase risks of young refugees were associated with their socioeconomic living conditions (Studies 3 and 4), but risk factors associated with the country of origin of the refugee population and the intercountry adoptees were more important determinants of schizophrenia than socioeconomic conditions in Sweden (Study 2). Young accompanied and unaccompanied refugees and intercountry adoptees had a lower likelihood of being in full employment than native Swedes with comparable levels of education. Secondary education, however, increased employment chances and reduced the risk of being neither employed nor in education or training (Study 5). Conclusion: Evidence suggests that several groups of young refugees are at higher risk of mental health problems and substance misuse. They also face employment disadvantages and barriers to psychiatric care in the early stages of developing a psychiatric disorder.

Abstract [sv]

Syfte: Att undersöka betydelsen av kontextuella faktorer för psykisk hälsa, alkohol- och narkotikamissbruk samt sysselsättning bland unga flyktingar som invandrat till Sverige som tonåringar.Metod: Avhandlingen baseras i sin helhet på studier i nationella register av nationella kohorter av flyktingar som anlände till Sverige i åldern 13-19 år och var folkbokförda i Sverige 2005, jämförda med övrig svensk befolkning och utlandsadopterade (Studier 2 och 5) i samma åldrar. Studierna 1-4 använder sig av Cox regressionsmodeller för att undersöka psykiatrisk vårdkonsumtion inklusive vård relaterad till alkohol- och narkotikamissbruk. Studie 5 undersöker position på arbets-marknaden bland unga ensamkommande och icke-ensamkommande flyktingar med hjälp av multinominal regression. Resultat: Unga ensamkommande och icke-ensamkommande flykting-ungdomar vårdas i större utsträckning i psykiatrisk sluten- och tvångs-vård, men ej öppenvård, med störst risk för flyktingar födda på Afrikas Horn och i Iran (Studie 1). Unga ensamkommande och icke-ensamkommande flyktingungdomar hade också högre risk för sjukhusvård och att dömas för brott i samband med alkohol- och narkotikamissbruk (Studie 3). Denna ökade vårdkonsumtion förklaras till en del av de unga flyk-tingarnas socioekonomiska levnadsförhållanden (Studier 3 och 4). Konsumtionen av psykiatrisk öppenvård ökade med tiden efter ankomsten till Sverige (Studie 1), liksom sjukhusvård till följd av alkohol- och narkotikamissbruk (Studier 3 och 4). Sjukhusvård och kriminalitet i sam-band med missbruk av alkohol och narkotika är vanligare bland unga manliga flyktingar än för kvinnliga. Faktorer associerade med flyktingars och utlandsadopterades ursprungsland var mer betydande riskfaktorer för schizofreni än de socioekonomiska förhållandena i Sverige (Studie 2). Unga ensamkommande och icke-ensamkommande flyktingar hade en högre risk att varken arbeta eller delta i en utbildning och hade också sämre utsikter till anställning än inhemska svenskar med jämförbar utbildningsnivå. Gymnasiekompetens ökade chanserna för inträde på arbetsmarknaden (Studie 5). Slutsats: Resultaten tyder på att flera grupper av unga flyktingar har en högre risk för problem med psykisk ohälsa och substansmissbruk. De konfronteras även i högre grad med arbetslöshet och olika hinder för att få psykiatrisk vård i tidiga stadier av psykisk ohälsa.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University, 2017. p. 83
Series
Health Equity Studies, ISSN 1651-5390 ; 22
Keywords
Young refugees, mental health, substance misuse, care consumption, labour market
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-143219 (URN)978-91-7649-864-4 (ISBN)978-91-7649-865-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-08-25, Aula Svea, Socialhögskolan, Sveavägen 160, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 1453203
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript. Paper 5: Manuscript.

Available from: 2017-06-07 Created: 2017-05-18 Last updated: 2019-12-12Bibliographically approved

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Manhica, HélioBerg, LisaAlmquist, Ylva B.Rostila, MikaelHjern, Anders
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