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Supernova surroundings on circumstellar and galactic scales
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
##### Abstract [en]

Some stars cease to be in a bright and destructive display called a supernova. This thesis explores what we can learn about supernovae (SNe) by studying their immediate surroundings, and what the SNe can teach us about their environments. The work presented is mostly based on the rich harvest of observations from 2009-2017 by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and its successor, the intermediate PTF (iPTF). The PTF/iPTF was an untargeted sky survey at Palomar Observatory, aimed at finding and following up astronomical transients, such as SNe. During its existence, a massive star typically loses several solar masses of material. If much mass is lost in the decades or centuries before the SN, this material around the star (the circumstellar medium, CSM) will be quickly swept up by the ejecta of the eventual SN. This interaction can contribute strongly to the luminosity of the SN and make the light curve of an interacting SN carry signs of the progenitor star mass loss history. SNe with a hydrogen-rich CSM are called SNe Type IIn. A SN of this type, iPTF13z, found and followed by iPTF, had a slowly declining lightcurve with at least 5 major rebrightenings ("bumps") indicating rich structure in the CSM. Archival images clearly shows a precursor outburst about 210 days before the SN discovery, demonstrating the iPTF13z progenitor to be restless before its demise. Type IIn supernovae are heterogeneous, but only limited statistics has been done on samples. From PTF/iPTF, a sample of 42 SNe Type IIn was therefore selected, with photometry allowing their light curve rise times, decline rates and peak luminosities to be measured. It was shown that more luminous events are generally more long-lasting, but no strong correlation was found between rise times and peak luminosities. Two clusters of risetimes (around 20 and 50 days, respectively) were identified. The less long-lasting SNe Type IIn dominate the sample, suggesting that stars with a less extended dense CSM might be more common among SN Type IIn progenitors. Thermonuclear SNe (SNe Type Ia) are useful as standardisable candles, but no secure identification has yet been made of the progenitor system of a SN Type Ia. Using a late-time spectrum from the Nordic Optical Telescope of the nearby thermonuclear SN 2014J, a search for material ablated from a possible non-compact companion gave the upper limit of about 0.0085 solar masses of hydrogen-rich ablated gas. One likely explanation is that the SN 2014J progenitor system was a binary white dwarf. Supernovae are also useful tracers of the star formation history in their host galaxies, with SNe Type Ia tracing earlier epochs of star formation and exploding massive stars tracing more recent. For active galactic nuclei (AGN, the luminous centres of galaxies harbouring accreting supermassive black holes) SNe allows the so-called unification model to be tested. The unification model assumes that the main distinction between the two types of AGN is the viewing angle towards the central black hole, and that other properties (e.g. star formation history) of the host galaxies should be the same for the two AGN types. Matching 2190 SNe from PTF/iPTF to about 89000 AGN with spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, a significantly higher number of SNe in the hosts of AGN type 2 was found, challenging the unification model.

##### Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University , 2019. , p. 116
##### Keywords [en]
supernovae, circumstellar medium, SNe Type IIn, iPTF13z, intermediate Palomar Transient Factory, active galactic nuclei, SN 2014J
##### National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Astronomy
##### Identifiers
ISBN: 978-91-7797-803-9 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7797-804-6 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-171451DiVA, id: diva2:1341404
##### Public defence
2019-09-23, sal FB42, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
##### Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2019-08-29 Created: 2019-08-08 Last updated: 2019-08-20Bibliographically approved
##### List of papers
1. No trace of a single-degenerate companion in late spectra of supernovae 2011fe and 2014J
Open this publication in new window or tab >>No trace of a single-degenerate companion in late spectra of supernovae 2011fe and 2014J
2015 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 577, article id A39Article in journal (Refereed) Published
##### Abstract [en]

Aims. This study aims at constraining the origin of the nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe), 2011fe and 2014J. The two most favoured scenarios for triggering the explosion of the white dwarf supernova progenitor is either mass loss from a non-degenerate companion or merger with another white dwarf. In the former, there could be a significant amount of leftover material from the companion at the centre of the supernova. Detecting such material would therefore favour the single-degenerate scenario. Methods. The left-over material from a possible non-degenerate companion can reveal itself after about one year, and in this study such material was searched for in the spectra of SN 2011fe (at 294 days after the explosion) using the Large Binocular Telescope and for SN 2014J using the Nordic Optical Telescope (315 days past explosion). The observations were interpreted using numerical models simulating the expected line emission from ablated material from the companion star. The spectral lines sought for are H alpha, [O I] lambda 6300, and [Ca II] lambda lambda 7291,7324, and the expected width of these lines is similar to 1000 km s(-1), which in the case of the [Ca II] lines blend to a broader feature. Results. No signs of H alpha, [O I] lambda 6300, or [Ca II] lambda lambda 7291, 7324 could be traced for in any of the two supernovae. When systematic uncertainties are included, the limits on hydrogen-rich ablated gas are 0 : 003 M-circle dot in SN 2011fe and 0 : 0085 M-circle dot in SN 2014J, where the limit for SN 2014J is the second lowest ever, and the limit for SN 2011fe is a revision of a previous limit. Limits are also put on helium-rich ablated gas, and here limits from [O I] lambda 6300 provide the upper mass limits 0 : 002 M-circle dot and 0 : 005 M-circle dot for SNe 2011fe and 2014J, respectively. These numbers are used in conjunction with other data to argue that these supernovae can stem from double-degenerate systems or from single-degenerate systems with a spun-up/spun-down super-Chandrasekhar white dwarf. For SN 2011fe, other types of hydrogen-rich donors can very likely be ruled out, whereas a main-sequence donor system with large intrinsic separation is still possible for SN 2014J. Helium-rich donor systems cannot be ruled out for any of the two supernovae, but the expected short delay time for such progenitors makes this possibility less likely, especially for SN 2011fe. Published data for SNe 1998bu, 2000cx, 2001el, 2005am, and 2005cf are used to constrain their origin. We emphasise that the results of this study depend on the sought-after lines emerging unattenuated from the central regions of the nebula. Detailed radiative transfer calculations with longer line lists than are presently used are needed to confirm that this is, in fact, true. Finally, the broad lines of SNe 2011fe and 2014J are discussed, and it is found that the [Ni II] lambda 7378 emission is redshifted by similar to+ 1300 km s(-1), as opposed to the known blueshift of similar to-1100 km s(-1) for SN 2011fe. [Fe II] lambda 7155 is also redshifted in SN 2014J. SN 2014J belongs to a minority of SNe Ia that both have a nebular redshift of [Fe II] lambda 7155 and [Ni II] lambda 7378, and a slow decline of the Si II lambda 6355 absorption trough just after B-band maximum.

##### Keywords
supernovae: general, supernovae: individual: SN 2011fe, supernovae: individual: SN 2014J
##### National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Astronomy
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-117781 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201525719 (DOI)000353579600039 ()
Available from: 2015-06-03 Created: 2015-06-01 Last updated: 2019-08-20Bibliographically approved
2. AGN Luminosity and Stellar Age: Two Missing Ingredients for AGN Unification as Seen with iPTF Supernovae
Open this publication in new window or tab >>AGN Luminosity and Stellar Age: Two Missing Ingredients for AGN Unification as Seen with iPTF Supernovae
2017 (English)In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 837, no 2, article id 110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
##### Abstract [en]

Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are extremely powerful cosmic objects, driven by accretion of hot gas upon super-massive black holes. The zoo of AGN classes is divided into two major groups, with Type-1 AGNs displaying broad Balmer emission lines and Type-2 narrow ones. For a long time it was believed that a Type-2 AGN is a Type-1 AGN viewed through a dusty kiloparsec-sized torus, but an emerging body of observations suggests more than just the viewing angle matters. Here we report significant differences in supernova (SN) counts and classes in the first study to date of SNe near Type-1 and Type-2 AGN host galaxies, using data from the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, and Galaxy Zoo. We detect many more SNe in Type-2 AGN hosts (size of effect similar to 5.1 sigma) compared to Type-1 hosts, which shows that the two classes of AGN are located inside host galaxies with different properties. In addition, Type-1 and Type-2 AGNs that are dominated by star formation according to Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer colors m(W1) - m(W2) < 0.5 and are matched in 22 mu m absolute magnitude differ by a factor of ten in L[O III] lambda 5007 luminosity, suggesting that when residing in similar types of host galaxies Type-1 AGNs are much more luminous. Our results demonstrate two more factors that play an important role in completing the current picture: the age of stellar populations and the AGN luminosity. This has immediate consequences for understanding the many AGN classes and galaxy evolution.

##### Keywords
galaxies: active, galaxies: nuclei, supernovae: general, surveys
##### National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Astronomy
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-144581 (URN)10.3847/1538-4357/aa5d5a (DOI)000401172400008 ()
Available from: 2017-07-20 Created: 2017-07-20 Last updated: 2019-08-20Bibliographically approved
3. The bumpy light curve of Type IIn supernova iPTF13z over 3 years
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The bumpy light curve of Type IIn supernova iPTF13z over 3 years
2017 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 605, article id A6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
##### Abstract [en]

A core-collapse (CC) supernova (SN) of Type IIn is dominated by the interaction of SN ejecta with the circumstellar medium (CSM). Some SNe IIn (e.g. SN 2006jd) have episodes of re-brightening (''bumps'') in their light curves. We present iPTF13z, a Type IIn SN discovered on 2013 February 1 by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF). This SN showed at least five bumps in its declining light curve between 130 and 750 days after discovery. We analyse this peculiar behaviour and try to infer the properties of the CSM, of the SN explosion, and the nature of the progenitor star. We obtained multi-band optical photometry for over 1000 days after discovery with the P48 and P60 telescopes at Palomar Observatory. We obtained low-resolution optical spectra during the same period. We did an archival search for progenitor outbursts. We analyse the photometry and the spectra, and compare iPTF13z to other SNe IIn. In particular we derive absolute magnitudes, colours, a pseudo-bolometric light curve, and the velocities of the different components of the spectral lines. A simple analytical model is used to estimate the properties of the CSM. iPTF13z had a light curve peaking at Mr <~ -18.3 mag. The five bumps during its decline phase had amplitudes ranging from 0.4 to 0.9 mag and durations between 20 and 120 days. The most prominent bumps appeared in all the different optical bands, when covered. The spectra of this SN showed typical SN IIn characteristics, with emission lines of Hα (with broad component FWHM ~ 103 - 104 km s-1 and narrow component FWHM ~ 102 km s-1) and He I, but also with Fe II, Ca II, Na I D and Hβ P Cygni profiles (with velocities of ~ 103 km  s-1). A pre-explosion outburst was identified lasting >~ 50 days, with Mr $\approx$ -15 mag around 210 days before discovery. Large, variable progenitor mass-loss rates (>~ 0.01 MSun yr-1) and CSM densities (>~ 10-16 g cm-3) are derived. The SN was hosted by a metal-poor dwarf galaxy at redshift z = 0.0328. We suggest that the light curve bumps of iPTF13z arose from SN ejecta interacting with denser regions in the CSM, possibly produced by the eruptions of a luminous blue variable progenitor star.

##### Keywords
supernovae: general, supernovae: individual: iPTF13z, galaxies: individual: SDSS J160200.05+211442.3
##### National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Astronomy
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-147273 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201629906 (DOI)000412231200072 ()
Available from: 2017-09-20 Created: 2017-09-20 Last updated: 2019-08-08Bibliographically approved
4. Type IIn supernova light-curve properties measured from an untargeted survey sample
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Type IIn supernova light-curve properties measured from an untargeted survey sample
##### Abstract [en]

We present a sample of supernovae Type IIn (SNe IIn) from the untargeted, magnitude-limited surveys of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and its successor, iPTF. SNe IIn found and followed by the PTF/iPTF were used to select a sample of 42 events with useful constraints on the rise times as well as with available post-peak photometry. The SNe were discovered in 2009-2016 and have at least one low-resolution classification spectrum, as well as photometry from the P48 and P60 telescopes at Palomar Observatory. We study the light-curve properties of these SNe IIn using spline fits (for the peak and the declining portion) and template matching (for the rising portion). We find that the typical rise times are divided into fast and slow risers as 20±8 d and 50±15 d, respectively. The decline rates could possibly be divided into two groups, but this division has weak statistical significance. We find no significant correlation between the peak luminosity of SNe IIn and their rise times, but the more luminous SNe IIn are generally found to be more durable and the slowly rising SNe IIn are generally found to be slowly declining. The SNe in our sample were hosted by galaxies of absolute magnitude −22≲Mg≲−13 mag. The K-corrections at light-curve peak of the SNe in our sample are found to be within 0.2 mag for the observer's frame r-band, for SNe IIn at redshifts z<0.25. Applying K-corrections and including also ostensibly ``superluminous'' SNe IIn, we find that the peak magnitudes are Mrpeak=−19.18±1.32mag. We conclude that the occurrence of conspicuous light-curve bumps in SNe IIn, such as in iPTF13z, is limited to 1.4+14.6−1.0% of the SNe IIn. We also investigate a possible subtype of SNe IIn with a fast rise to a ≳50 d plateau followed by a slow, linear decline.

##### National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Astronomy
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-171450 (URN)
Available from: 2019-08-08 Created: 2019-08-08 Last updated: 2019-08-12

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