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Organohalogen compounds of emerging concern in Baltic Sea biota: Levels, biomagnification potential and comparisons with legacy contaminants
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
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Number of Authors: 162020 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 144, article id 106037Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While new chemicals have replaced major toxic legacy contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), knowledge of their current levels and biomagnification potential in Baltic Sea biota is lacking. Therefore, a suite of chemicals of emerging concern, including organophosphate esters (OPEs), short-chain, medium-chain and long-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs, MCCPs, LCCPs), halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), were analysed in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), viviparous eelpout (Zoarces viviparus), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), common eider (Somateria mollissima), common guillemot (Uria aalge) and white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) from the Baltic Proper, sampled between 2006 and 2016. Results were benchmarked with existing data for legacy contaminants. The mean concentrations for Sigma OPEs ranged from 57 to 550 ng g(-1) lipid weight (lw), for Sigma CPs from 110 to 640 ng g(-1) lw for Sigma HFRs from 0.42 to 80 ng g(-1) lw, and for Sigma PFAS from 1.1 to 450 ng g(-1) wet weight. Perfluoro-4-ethyl-cyclohexanesulfonate (PFECHS) was detected in most species. Levels of OPEs, CPs and HFRs were generally similar or higher than those of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and/or hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD). OPE, CP and HFR concentrations were also similar to PCBs and DDTs in blue mussel, viviparous eelpout and Atlantic herring. In marine mammals and birds, PCB and DDT concentrations remained orders of magnitude higher than those of OPEs, CPs, HFRs and PFAS. Predator-prey ratios for individual OPEs (0.28-3.9) and CPs (0.40-5.0) were similar or somewhat lower than those seen for BDE-47 (5.0-29) and HBCDD (2.4-13). Ratios for individual HFRs (0.010-37) and PFAS (0.15-47) were, however, of the same order of magnitude as seen for p,p'-DDE (4.7-66) and CB-153 (31-190), indicating biomagnification potential for many of the emerging contaminants. Lack of toxicity data, including for complex mixtures, makes it difficult to assess the risks emerging contaminants pose. Their occurence and biomagnification potential should trigger risk management measures, particularly for MCCPs, HFRs and PFAS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2020. Vol. 144, article id 106037
Keywords [en]
Halogenated flame retardants, Organophosphate esters, Chlorinated paraffins, Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, Top predator
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-188192DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2020.106037ISI: 000580630100045PubMedID: 32835922OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-188192DiVA, id: diva2:1513228
Available from: 2020-12-29 Created: 2020-12-29 Last updated: 2022-02-25Bibliographically approved

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de Wit, Cynthia A.Hellström, PeterSellström, UllaSonne, ChristianYuan, Bo

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