Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
How does cessation of work affect sleep? Prospective analyses of sleep duration, timing and efficiency from the Swedish Retirement Study
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8806-5698
Show others and affiliations
2021 (English)In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 30, no 3, article id e13157Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several strands of research indicate that work competes for time with sleep, but to what extent the timing and duration of sleep is affected by work is not known. Retirement offers a quasi-experimental life transition to study this in a within-individual study design. The few existing studies report that people sleep longer and later after retirement but mainly rely on self-reported data or between-individual analyses. We recruited 100 participants aged 61–72 years who were in paid work but would soon retire and measured them in a baseline week with accelerometers, diaries and questionnaires. After 1 and 2 years, the measurements were repeated for the now retired participants. Changes in sleep duration, timing, efficiency, chronotype and social jetlag were analysed using multilevel modelling. Gender, chronotype at baseline and partner's working status were analysed as potential effect modifiers. Sleep duration increased by 21 min, whereas sleep efficiency remained similar. Time of sleep onset and final awakening were postponed by 26 and 52 min, respectively, pushing midsleep forward from 03:17 to 03:37 hours. Changes in duration and timing of sleep were driven by weekday sleep, whereas weekend sleep stayed about the same. Social jetlag decreased but still occurred after retirement. Changes at retirement in sleep duration and timing were smaller for participants with a later chronotype and who had full-time working partners. These findings indicate that paid work generates sleep loss and hinders people from sleeping in line with their biological time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2021. Vol. 30, no 3, article id e13157
Keywords [en]
actigraphy, diurnal preference, job, retired, sleep, debt, social jetlag
National Category
Psychology Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-193531DOI: 10.1111/jsr.13157OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-193531DiVA, id: diva2:1557957
Note

This study was partly funded by the Swedish Council for Health, Working life and Welfare (Grant numbers: 2012-1743, 2017-00099).

Available from: 2021-05-27 Created: 2021-05-27 Last updated: 2022-09-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Work and sleep - what's stress got to do with it?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Work and sleep - what's stress got to do with it?
2022 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Work may affect sleep by reducing the time available for recovery and, via work stress, by reducing sleep quality. Further, people experiencing sleep disturbance may be less resistant to work stress. These processes may lead to the development of a vicious cycle between work and sleep, in which stress has a central role.

Knowledge of the prospective relations between work, stress and sleep is limited, particularly from studies examining relationships from sleep to work stress and large-scale studies using objective measures of sleep.

Consequently, this thesis aims to analyse the prospective relations, including directions of effects, between work-related factors, in particular work stress, and self-rated and objective measures of sleep.

The first two studies used the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, with biennial self-rated measures of work-related factors (demands, control, support, stress, physical factors, scheduling) and sleep. We used structural equation models to analyse the direction of effects between work-related factors and sleep. The next two studies used the Swedish Retirement Study, a prospective study using self-reports and actigraphy, which followed people into retirement. We used multilevel modelling to analyse within-individual changes in sleep duration, timing and quality over three waves across retirement.

We observed prospective reciprocal relations between work stressors (demands, control and support), perceived stress and self-rated sleep quality. Work was associated with earlier timing of sleep and sleep deprivation of 30 minutes per night. Improvements in self-rated sleep quality after retirement were not accompanied by improvements in actigraph-measured sleep quality.

In conclusion, this thesis has demonstrated that work, stress and sleep form a vicious cycle. Interventions targeting sleep disturbance could improve people’s experience of their work environments. Likewise, interventions aiming to lower stress and increase the flexibility of work could reduce the impact of work on sleep, and thereby on health, contributing to a decent and sustainable working life.

Abstract [sv]

Sammanfattning

Arbete kan påverka sömnen både genom att minska tiden för återhämtning, och genom att arbetsrelaterad stress kan ge en försämrad sömnkvalitet. Sömnstörningar kan i sig minska motståndskraften mot stress, vilket riskerar att skapa en negativ spiral mellan arbete och sömn. 

Evidensen kring hur arbete, stress och sömn påverkar varandra över tid är bristfällig. Framför allt saknas studier om hur sömn kan påverka arbete samt större studier med objektiva sömnmått.

Avhandlingens syfte är därför att studera hur arbete, stress och sömn relaterar till varandra över tid, och effekternas riktning, där sömn mäts både med objektiva och självrapporterade mått. 

I de två första studierna användes Svenska Longitudinella studien Om Sociala förhållanden, arbetsliv och Hälsa (SLOSH) med självskattade mätningar vartannat år. Genom strukturell ekvationsmodellering (SEM) analyserade vi riktning av effekter mellan arbetsrelaterade faktorer (krav, kontroll, socialt stöd, stress, fysisk arbetsmiljö och arbetstider) och sömn över två år. I de två senare studierna användes data från den svenska Pensioneringsstudien, i vilken vi följt människor i övergången från arbete till pension och mätt deras sömn, arbetsrelaterade faktorer och hälsa. För att analysera hur arbete påverkade sömnlängd och sömnkvalitet använde vi oss av flernivåmodellering där vi jämförde deltagarna med sig själva, innan och efter pensionering. 

Vi fann att krav, kontroll, socialt stöd och upplevd stress var kopplat till självskattad sömnkvalitet över tid, i båda riktningar. Arbete kunde kopplas till tidigare uppstigande och 30 minuters kortare sömn per natt. Förbättringarna vi fann i självskattad sömn efter pension följdes inte av motsvarande förbättringar i sömn mätt med aktigrafi.

Avhandlingen visar på hur arbete, stress och sömn kan skapa en negativ spiral. I ljuset av detta skulle förbättringar av arbetsmiljö och arbetstider kunna minska stress, öka sömnlängden och förbättra sömnkvaliteten hos arbetande, samtidigt som insatser mot sömnproblem skulle kunna leda till en bättre upplevelse av arbetsmiljön – och tillsammans kunna bidra till ett anständigt och hållbart arbetsliv.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Public Health Sciences, Stockholm University, 2022. p. 85
Series
Stockholm Studies in Public Health Sciences, ISSN 2003-0061 ; 9
Keywords
insomnia, job stress, retirement, social jetlag, accelerometery
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-209735 (URN)978-91-8014-026-3 (ISBN)978-91-8014-027-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2022-11-10, lärosal 32, hus 4, Albano, Albanovägen 12, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2022-10-18 Created: 2022-09-26 Last updated: 2022-10-11Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text in DiVA

Other links

Publisher's full text

Authority records

Garefelt, JohnnaGershagen, SaraKecklund, GöranWesterlund, HugoPlatts, Loretta

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Garefelt, JohnnaGershagen, SaraKecklund, GöranWesterlund, HugoPlatts, Loretta
By organisation
Stress Research Institute
In the same journal
Journal of Sleep Research
PsychologyPublic Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 81 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf