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Aging and Charge Compensation Effects of the Rechargeable Aqueous Zinc/Copper Hexacyanoferrate Battery Elucidated Using In Situ X-ray Techniques
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Antal upphovsmän: 62021 (Engelska)Ingår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 13, nr 50, s. 59962-59974Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The zinc/copper hexacyanoferrate (Zn/CuHCF) cell has gained attention as an aqueous rechargeable zinc-ion battery (ZIB) owing to its open framework, excellent rate capability, and high safety. However, both the Zn anode and the CuHCF cathode show unavoidable signs of aging during cycling, though the underlying mechanisms have remained somewhat ambiguous. Here, we present an in-depth study of the CuHCF cathode by employing various X-ray spectroscopic techniques. This allows us to distinguish between structure-related aging effects and charge compensation processes associated with electroactive metal centers upon Zn2+ ion insertion/deinsertion. By combining high-angle annular dark-field-scanning electron transmission microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and elemental analysis, we reconstruct the picture of both the bulk and the surface. First, we identify a set of previously debated X-ray diffraction peaks appearing at early stages of cycling (below 200 cycles) in CuHCF. Our data suggest that these peaks are unrelated to hypothetical ZnxCu1–xHCF phases or to oxidic phases, but are caused by partial intercalation of ZnSO4 into graphitic carbon. We further conclude that Cu is the unstable species during aging, whose dissolution is significant at the surface of the CuHCF particles. This triggers Zn2+ ions to enter newly formed Cu vacancies, in addition to native Fe vacancies already present in the bulk, which causes a reduction of nearby metal sites. This is distinct from the charge compensation process where both the Cu2+/Cu+ and Fe3+/Fe2+ redox couples participate throughout the bulk. By tracking the K-edge fluorescence using operando XAS coupled with cyclic voltammetry, we successfully link the aging effect to the activation of the Fe3+/Fe2+ redox couple as a consequence of Cu dissolution. This explains the progressive increase in the voltage of the charge/discharge plateaus upon repeated cycling. We also find that SO42– anions reversibly insert into CuHCF during charge. Our work clarifies several intriguing structural and redox-mediated aging mechanisms in the CuHCF cathode and pinpoints parameters that correlate with the performance, which will hold importance for the development of future Prussian blue analogue-type cathodes for aqueous rechargeable ZIBs.

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2021. Vol. 13, nr 50, s. 59962-59974
Nyckelord [en]
aqueous rechargeable zinc-ion batteries, zinc copper hexacyanoferrate, Prussian blue analogues, aging effects, charge compensation process, in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction
Nationell ämneskategori
Materialteknik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-201405DOI: 10.1021/acsami.1c19167ISI: 000752977400029PubMedID: 34878765OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-201405DiVA, id: diva2:1635942
Tillgänglig från: 2022-02-08 Skapad: 2022-02-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-04-08Bibliografiskt granskad

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Görlin, MikaelaOjwang, Dickson O.Lee, Ming-TaoRenman, ViktorTai, Cheuk-Wai

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Görlin, MikaelaOjwang, Dickson O.Lee, Ming-TaoRenman, ViktorTai, Cheuk-Wai
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Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK)
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ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
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