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Disperse azo dyes, arylamines and halogenated dinitrobenzene compounds in synthetic garments on the Swedish market
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9724-210X
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1636-0214
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2981-3617
Number of Authors: 42022 (English)In: Contact Dermatitis, ISSN 0105-1873, E-ISSN 1600-0536, Vol. 87, no 4, p. 315-324Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Azobenzene disperse dyes (azo DDs) are well-known as textile allergens, but the knowledge of their occurrence in garments is low. The numerous azo DDs and dye components found in textiles constitute a potential health risk, but only seven azo DDs are included in the European baseline patch test series (EBS).

Objectives: To investigate non-regulated azo DDs and dye components in synthetic garments on the Swedish market.

Methods: High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and computerized data mining.

Results: Sixty-two azo DDs were detected, with Disperse Red 167:1 occurring in 67%, and 14 other DDs each found in >20% of the garments. Notably, the EBS dyes were less common, three even not detected, while arylamines were frequently detected and exceeded 1 mg/g in several garments. Also, halogenated dinitrobenzenes were identified in 25% of the textiles.

Conclusion: Azo DDs and dye components, in complex compositions and with large variations, occurred frequently in the synthetic garments. The arylamines were shown to occur at much higher levels compared to the azo DDs, suggesting the former constitute a potentially higher health risk. The role of arylamines and halogenated dinitrobenzenes in textile allergy has to be further investigated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2022. Vol. 87, no 4, p. 315-324
Keywords [en]
arylamines, clothing, contact allergy, disperse azo dyes, halogenated dinitrobenzenes, screening, textile dye mix
National Category
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-206850DOI: 10.1111/cod.14163ISI: 000809815200001PubMedID: 35611449Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85131535325OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-206850DiVA, id: diva2:1679556
Available from: 2022-07-01 Created: 2022-07-01 Last updated: 2024-06-12Bibliographically approved
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Carlsson, JosefineÅström, TimÖstman, ConnyNilsson, Ulrika

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