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Mercury Ion Binding to Apolipoprotein E Variants ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4: Similar Binding Affinities but Different Structure Induction Effects
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7544-092X
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. The National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Estonia.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7863-1887
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Number of Authors: 92022 (English)In: ACS Omega, E-ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 7, no 33, p. 28924-28931Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mercury intoxication typically produces more severe outcomes in people with the APOE-ε4 gene, which codes for the ApoE4 variant of apolipoprotein E, compared to individuals with the APOE-ε2 and APOE-ε3 genes. Why the APOE-ε4 allele is a risk factor in mercury exposure remains unknown. One proposed possibility is that the ApoE protein could be involved in clearing of heavy metals, where the ApoE4 protein might perform this task worse than the ApoE2 and ApoE3 variants. Here, we used fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopies to characterize the in vitro interactions of the three different ApoE variants with Hg(I) and Hg(II) ions. Hg(I) ions displayed weak binding to all ApoE variants and induced virtually no structural changes. Thus, Hg(I) ions appear to have no biologically relevant interactions with the ApoE protein. Hg(II) ions displayed stronger and very similar binding affinities for all three ApoE isoforms, with KD values of 4.6 μM for ApoE2, 4.9 μM for ApoE3, and 4.3 μM for ApoE4. Binding of Hg(II) ions also induced changes in ApoE superhelicity, that is, altered coil–coil interactions, which might modify the protein function. As these structural changes were most pronounced in the ApoE4 protein, they could be related to the APOE-ε4 gene being a risk factor in mercury toxicity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2022. Vol. 7, no 33, p. 28924-28931
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Chemical Sciences
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URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-209191DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.2c02254ISI: 000846759000001PubMedID: 36033665OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-209191DiVA, id: diva2:1696638
Available from: 2022-09-19 Created: 2022-09-19 Last updated: 2022-09-19Bibliographically approved

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Berntsson, ElinaJarvet, JüriGräslund, AstridWärmländer, Sebastian K.T.S.

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