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Thermally Insulating and Moisture-Resilient Foams Based on Upcycled Aramid Nanofibers and Nanocellulose
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4527-2504
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3392-1741
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5980-1641
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5702-0681
Number of Authors: 42023 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 35, no 48, article id 2305195Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Low-density foams and aerogels based on upcycled and bio-based nanofibers and additives are promising alternatives to fossil-based thermal insulation materials. Super-insulating foams are prepared from upcycled acid-treated aramid nanofibers (upANFA) obtained from Kevlar yarn and tempo-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (CNF) from wood. The ice-templated hybrid upANFA/CNF-based foams with an upANFA content of up to 40 wt% display high thermal stability and a very low thermal conductivity of 18–23 mW m−1 K−1 perpendicular to the aligned nanofibrils over a wide relative humidity (RH) range of 20% to 80%. The thermal conductivity of the hybrid upANFA/CNF foams is found to decrease with increasing upANFA content (5–20 wt%). The super-insulating properties of the CNF-upANFA hybrid foams are related to the low density of the foams and the strong interfacial phonon scattering between the very thin and partially branched upANFA and CNF in the hybrid foam walls. Defibrillated nanofibers from textiles are not limited to Kevlar, and this study can hopefully inspire efforts to upcycle textile waste into high-performance products.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2023. Vol. 35, no 48, article id 2305195
Keywords [en]
aramid nanofibers, foams, Kevlar, phonon scattering, thermal insulation, upcycling
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-223889DOI: 10.1002/adma.202305195ISI: 001087976800001PubMedID: 37735848Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85174610762OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-223889DiVA, id: diva2:1813471
Available from: 2023-11-21 Created: 2023-11-21 Last updated: 2024-03-27Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Multifunctional Foams Based on Nanomaterials from Plants and Textile Waste
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multifunctional Foams Based on Nanomaterials from Plants and Textile Waste
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Nanoparticles extracted from plants or textile waste are promising candidates for the design of sustainable materials. In this thesis, I explored how nanoparticles extracted from trees and from Kevlar and cotton textile wastes can be processed to form lightweight composite foams. The heat transfer and other functional properties such as electromagnetic shielding have been related to the structure, composition, and processing of the composite foams. 

Specifically, upcycled aramid nanofibers (upANFA) with a small diameter were derived from Kevlar yarn. The upANFA could be combined with wood-based cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) to produce moisture-resilient anisotropic foams with a very low thermal conductivity perpendicular to the aligned nanofibrils. The very low radial thermal conductivity was related to the strong interfacial phonon scattering between the very thin upANFA and CNF in the hybrid foam walls. 

Aqueous dispersions of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were used to form anisotropic foams with an anisotropic heat transport and orientation-dependent electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency (EMI-SE). The low-density (31 kg m–3) CNC-MWCNT hybrid foams with 22 wt% MWCNT were mechanically robust along the axial direction (Young’s Modulus of 1200 kPa). The foams displayed an absorption-dominated EMI-SE of up to 41–48 dB and transferred heat favorably along the axial direction compared to the radial, meaning that this material could be useful in devices that require directional heat management and electromagnetic shielding.

A novel wet-foaming with subsequent freeze-casting process was developed to produce air- and ice-templated foams based on methylcellulose, CNF, and tannic acid. The air- and ice-templated foams displayed a high specific compression stiffness compared with other CNF-based materials while maintaining good insulation properties. 

Hybrid foams based on CNC extruded from cotton textile waste and wood-based CNF were prepared by freeze-casting in combination with two different solvent removal routes: supercritical drying and freeze drying. The nanoparticles in the foam walls of the freeze-dried foams were more densely packed, and the foams were mechanically stiffer and more resistant to moisture, whereas the supercritically dried foams displayed a significantly larger surface area. This highlights how the processing techniques govern the structure of a material, which in turn affects its properties. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2024. p. 87
Keywords
multifunctional foams, nanofibers, aramid, cotton, nanocellulose, heat transport, thermal conductivity, electromagnetic shielding, supercritical drying, freeze drying
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Research subject
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-227834 (URN)978-91-8014-729-3 (ISBN)978-91-8014-730-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2024-05-15, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16B, Stockholm, 15:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2024-04-22 Created: 2024-03-27 Last updated: 2024-04-15Bibliographically approved

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Di, AndiSchiele, CarinaHadi, Seyed EhsanBergström, Lennart

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