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Is snoozing losing? Why intermittent morning alarms are used and how they affect sleep, cognition, cortisol, and mood
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7590-0826
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3932-7310
Number of Authors: 32024 (English)In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 33, no 3, article id e14054Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pressing the snooze button is a common way to start the day, but little is known about this behaviour. Through two studies we determined predictors and effects of snoozing. In Study 1 (n = 1732) respondents described their waking habits, confirming that snoozing is widespread, especially in younger individuals and later chronotypes. Morning drowsiness and shorter sleep were also more common for those who snooze. Study 2 was a within-subjects laboratory study (with polysomnography) on habitual snoozers (n = 31), showing that 30 min of snoozing improved or did not affect performance on cognitive tests directly upon rising compared to an abrupt awakening. Bayes factors indicate varying strengths of this evidence. Snoozing resulted in about 6 min of lost sleep, while preventing awakenings from slow-wave sleep (N3). There were no clear effects of snoozing on the cortisol awakening response, morning sleepiness, mood, or overnight sleep architecture. A brief snooze period may thus help alleviate sleep inertia, without substantially disturbing sleep, for late chronotypes and those with morning drowsiness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2024. Vol. 33, no 3, article id e14054
Keywords [en]
cognitive function, drowsiness, intermittent alarms, mood, sleep inertia, snooze
National Category
Otorhinolaryngology Neurology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-223879DOI: 10.1111/jsr.14054ISI: 001087320500001PubMedID: 37849039Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85174239331OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-223879DiVA, id: diva2:1813536
Available from: 2023-11-21 Created: 2023-11-21 Last updated: 2024-05-14Bibliographically approved

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Sundelin, TinaAxelsson, John

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