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How Reproducible is the Synthesis of Zr-Porphyrin Metal-Organic Frameworks? An Interlaboratory Study
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
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Number of Authors: 272024 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 36, no 15, article id 2304832Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a rapidly growing class of materials that offer great promise in various applications. However, the synthesis remains challenging: for example, a range of crystal structures can often be accessed from the same building blocks, which complicates the phase selectivity. Likewise, the high sensitivity to slight changes in synthesis conditions may cause reproducibility issues. This is crucial, as it hampers the research and commercialization of affected MOFs. Here, it presents the first-ever interlaboratory study of the synthetic reproducibility of two Zr-porphyrin MOFs, PCN-222 and PCN-224, to investigate the scope of this problem. For PCN-222, only one sample out of ten was phase pure and of the correct symmetry, while for PCN-224, three are phase pure, although none of these show the spatial linker order characteristic of PCN-224. Instead, these samples resemble dPCN-224 (disordered PCN-224), which has recently been reported. The variability in thermal behavior, defect content, and surface area of the synthesised samples are also studied. The results have important ramifications for field of metal-organic frameworks and their crystallization, by highlighting the synthetic challenges associated with a multi-variable synthesis space and flat energy landscapes characteristic of MOFs. It performed an interlaboratory study of the synthesis of the metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) PCN-222 and PCN-224. Ten participants independently synthesized the two MOFs and the products are analyzed, primarily by X-ray diffraction. The success rates are low (one-three samples corresponding to a pure sample of the correct phase), thus highlighting the problems with irreproducibility in MOF synthesis. image

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2024. Vol. 36, no 15, article id 2304832
Keywords [en]
metal-organic frameworks, reproducibility, synthesis
National Category
Nano Technology Materials Engineering Inorganic Chemistry Other Physics Topics
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URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-226332DOI: 10.1002/adma.202304832ISI: 001146027900001PubMedID: 37669645Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85182568319OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-226332DiVA, id: diva2:1835740
Available from: 2024-02-07 Created: 2024-02-07 Last updated: 2024-04-29Bibliographically approved

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Boström, Hanna L. B.

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Boström, Hanna L. B.Heck, FabianChampness, Neil R.
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