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Aspect, evidentiality and tense in Mongolian: From Middle Mongol to Khalkha and Khorchin
Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The present thesis consists of an introduction and the following papers:

  • The aspect-evidentiality system of Middle Mongol. Ural-Altaic Studies, 13. (forthcoming)
  • The tense-aspect system of Khorchin Mongolian. In: Pirkko Suihkonen & Lindsay Whaley (eds.), Typology of Languages of Europe and Northern and Central Asia. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. (forthcoming)
  • Aspect and epistemic notions in the present tense system of Khalkha Mongolian. Acta Linguistica Petropolitana. (forthcoming)
  • Factual vs. evidential? - The past tense forms of spoken Khalkha Mongolian. In: Ad Foolen, Helen de Hoop, & Gijs Mulder (eds.), Empirical Approaches to Evidentiality. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. (under review)

Its purpose is to give an account of tense, aspect and evidentiality in three Mongolian varieties: Middle Mongol (MM) as spoken in the Mongol Empire, Khalkha Mongolian as spoken in the Mongolian state, and Khorchin Mongolian as spoken in eastern Inner Mongolia, China. MM started out with a tripartite tense distinction and a medium-sized aspectual system. Its past evidential system was tripartite with suffixes for firsthand, non-firsthand and evidentially neutral information. In Khorchin, which developed under the influence of Mandarin and Manchu, evidentiality was lost, and tense was simplified into a past / non-past distinction, alongside with a discontinuous proximal future / past marker. The aspect system underwent some changes, but retained its complexity. Khalkha, which developed under the influence of Turkic and Tibetan, underwent some shared innovations with Khorchin, but retained participles as a multifunctional unit within finite predicates, so that its aspectual system grew more complex. The past evidentiality distinctions of MM were basically retained, but the introduction of present tense evidentiality brought a number of changes: the evidentially neutral value shifted to signaling assimilated knowledge, and discontinuous future uses were introduced for all past markers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University , 2014. , p. 51
Keywords [en]
Middle Mongolian, Mongolian, Khalkha, Khorchin, tense, evidentiality, aspect, complex predicates
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Research subject
General Linguistics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-106174ISBN: 978-91-628-9124-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-106174DiVA, id: diva2:735288
Public defence
2014-10-17, hörsal 4, hus B, Universitetsvägen 10 B, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 1: Accepted. Paper 2: Accepted. Paper 3: Accepted. Paper 4: Submitted.

 

Available from: 2014-09-25 Created: 2014-07-24 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The aspect-evidentiality system of Middle Mongol
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The aspect-evidentiality system of Middle Mongol
2014 (English)In: Ural-Altaic studies, ISSN 2079-1003, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 7-38Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper contains an analysis of aspect, tense and evidentiality in Middle Mongol. This language has a fairly complex aspectual system, consisting of mostly periphrastic constructions built up from converbal, participial and final suffixes, and two different stative copula verbs. These express progressivity, habituality, genericity, perfectivity, perfect and resultativity on the present and past tense level. Present progressivity and resultativity can both be expressed by two different constructions that differ by their aspectual scope and/or actional properties. The three past tense suffixes mark factual, firsthand and secondhand information. This evidential trichotomy is restricted to the perfective aspect, while all other aspectual past tense markers only receive firsthand or secondhand marking. No aspectual distinctions seem to be made in the future, though both the future participle and the resultative participle can form contrafactual constructions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Moscow: Rossijskaja akademija nauk / Russian Academy of Sciences, 2014
Keywords
tense, aspect, evidentiality, Mongolian
National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
General Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-106126 (URN)
Available from: 2014-07-21 Created: 2014-07-21 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
2. The tense-aspect system of Khorchin Mongolian
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The tense-aspect system of Khorchin Mongolian
2014 (English)In: On diversity and complexity of languages spoken in Europe and North and Central Asia / [ed] Pirkko Suihkonen, Lindsay J. Whaley, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2014, p. 1-66Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Khorchin, a Mongolian dialect spoken in eastern Inner Mongolia, has a tense-aspect system slightly simpler than Middle Mongol and considerably simpler than Central Mongolian dialects (Khalkha, Chakhar). While it can express the time stability of ongoing events with many nuances, present habitual and generic events are not distinguished. The existence of a present perfect category is doubtful, but in any case it doesn’t extend to the past as participle-copula-combinations are impossible. Evidentiality was lost in the central verbal system, but a non-obligatory quotative/hearsay marker exists. This article is an attempt to fit these phenomena into a coherent system of tense, aspect and related notions and to explore some of its diachronic implications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2014
Series
Studies in language companion series ; 164
Keywords
Khorchin, Mongolian, tense, aspect, evidentiality
National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
General Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-106128 (URN)10.1075/slcs.164.01bro (DOI)9789027259295 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-07-21 Created: 2014-07-21 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
3. Aspect and epistemic notions in the present tense system of Khalkha Mongolian
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aspect and epistemic notions in the present tense system of Khalkha Mongolian
2015 (English)In: Acta Linguistica Petropolitana: Transactions of the Institute for Linguistic Studies / [ed] N. N. Kazansky, St. Petersburg: Rossijskaja akademija nauk / Russian Academy of Sciences, 2015, Vol. XI, no 3, p. 46-127Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, I will dicuss positive present tense forms in spoken Khalkha Mongolian. Khalkha is analyzed to have five non-finite aspect markers, the Progressive, Continuative, Habitual, Perfect, and Prospective. They mainly combine with the three suffixes ‑n, ‑aa and ‑dag. On its own, ‑n expresses an instantiated potential or neutral future and ‑aa combines epistemic possibility and resultativity. In combination with aspect markers, though, they express the evidential value of direct vs. indirect perception. As the resultant state of a perfect can be perceived directly, the division runs between direct sensual perception of the event and an event inferred from direct sensual perception vs. events that are concluded from assumptions, hearsay, and previous perception. The suffix ‑dag expresses habitual and generic semantics. It is most commonly used on its own, but can also take other aspect markers into its scope, e.g. expressing a habitually ongoing event. Next to its main use, it is even used to refer to mono-occasional events that diverge from what the speaker perceives as the normal course of events. In addition, absolute-final and other uses of the participle ‑h and final uses of the converb ‑aad are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
St. Petersburg: Rossijskaja akademija nauk / Russian Academy of Sciences, 2015
Series
Acta Linguistica Petropolitana, ISSN 2306-5737 ; 11
Keywords
aspect, evidentiality, Khalkha Mongolian
National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
General Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-106140 (URN)9785020395701 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-07-21 Created: 2014-07-21 Last updated: 2018-02-13Bibliographically approved
4. Factual vs. evidential? The past tense forms of spoken Khalkha Mongolian
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factual vs. evidential? The past tense forms of spoken Khalkha Mongolian
2018 (English)In: Evidence for Evidentiality / [ed] Ad Foolen, Helen de Hoop, Gijs Mulder, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, p. 45-75Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Past tense forms of spoken Khalkha Mongolian distinguish between established (‑sang) and non-established knowledge, which is then either based on direct (‑laa) or indirect (‑jee) evidence. Time of acquisition thus determines whether information source is marked, though vivid recollection (‑laa) and deferred realization (‑jee) overrule it. Conversely, attempted recollection in questions (‑l=uu) doesn’t presuppose sensory perception. A fourth suffix (‑v) is used if well-established events still surprise the speaker. These suffixes may also be used in a discontinuous fashion to refer to the future and then modally qualify predictions as inevitable (‑sang), apprehended [but preventable] (‑v), based on sensory evidence (‑laa) or inferred (‑jee). The distinction between unsourced ‑sang and sourced ‑laa/-jee is thus not about factual stance, but codes the extent to which information is consolidated in memory.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018
Series
Human Cognitive Processing, ISSN 1387-6724 ; 61
Keywords
mirative, indirect evidence, direct evidence, discontinuous tense, time of acquisition, preventive
National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
General Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-106142 (URN)10.1075/hcp.61.03bro (DOI)9789027200952 (ISBN)9789027263919 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-07-21 Created: 2014-07-21 Last updated: 2019-09-24Bibliographically approved

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