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Trophic transfer of naturally produced brominated aromatic compounds in a Baltic Sea food chain
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
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Antal upphovsmän: 52016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144, s. 1597-1604Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Brominated aromatic compounds (BACs) are widely distributed in the marine environment. Some of these compounds are highly toxic, such as certain hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs). In addition to anthropogenic emissions through use of BACs as e.g. flame retardants, BACs are natural products formed by marine organisms such as algae, sponges, and cyanobacteria. Little is known of the transfer of BACs from natural producers and further up in the trophic food chain. In this study it was observed that total sum of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and OH-PBDEs increased in concentration from the filamentous red alga Ceramium tenuicorne, via Gammarus sp. and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to perch (Perca fluviatilis). The MeO-PBDEs, which were expected to bioaccumulate, increased in concentration accordingly up to perch, where the levels suddenly dropped dramatically. The opposite pattern was observed for OH-PBDEs, where the concentration exhibited a general trend of decline up the food web, but increased in perch, indicating metabolic demethylation of MeO-PBDEs. Debromination was also indicated to occur when progressing through the food chain resulting in high levels of tetra-brominated MeO-PBDE and OH-PBDE congeners in fish, while some penta- and hexa-brominated congeners were observed to be the dominant products in the alga. As it has been shown that OH-PBDEs are potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation and that mixtures of different congener may act synergistically in terms of this toxic mode of action, the high levels of OH-PBDEs detected in perch in this study warrants further investigation into potential effects of these compounds on Baltic wildlife, and monitoring of their levels.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2016. Vol. 144, s. 1597-1604
Nyckelord [en]
Natural production, Chemical pollutant, Bromophenols, Trophic transfer, Bioaccumulation, Baltic Sea
Nationell ämneskategori
Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap Kemi
Forskningsämne
miljökemi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-126880DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.10.024ISI: 000367774400202PubMedID: 26517387OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-126880DiVA, id: diva2:905373
Tillgänglig från: 2016-02-22 Skapad: 2016-02-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-30Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Hydroxylated polybrominat­ed diphenyl ethers in Baltic Sea biota: Natural production, food web distribution and biotransformation
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Hydroxylated polybrominat­ed diphenyl ethers in Baltic Sea biota: Natural production, food web distribution and biotransformation
2016 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) are naturally produced in aquatic ecosystems e.g. by algae. Many OH-PBDEs have been observed to be highly bioactive and to cause adverse effects through several pathways, e.g. via disrupting oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). The levels of some OH-PBDEs have increased in Baltic biota over the past decades. This may be associated with the nutrient enrichment of the Baltic Sea, which has favored growth of some of the OH-PBDE producers.

Ceramium tenuicorne has been suggested to be a producer of OH-PBDEs in the Baltic Sea, which is supported by the results presented in this thesis. The levels of OH-PBDEs were observed to fluctuate greatly in C. tenuicorne over the summer season, and to correlate with the levels of pigments in the algae. However, the observed congener pattern in C. tenuicorne questioned theories regarding the mechanism of their biosynthesis. The results indicate a much more selective pathway for biosynthesis than previously suggested for the production of OH-PBDEs.

One of the most abundant OH-PBDEs in C. tenuicorne, 6-OH-BDE137, has previously been observed to be toxic to bacteria, fungi, and crustaceans. Furthermore, Baltic gammarids seemed to change their feeding preferences towards less grazing on C. tenuicorne during the production peek of OH-PBDEs in the alga. This suggests that OH-PBDEs may serve as allelochemical defense agents for C. tenuicorne.

The transport and fate of OH-PBDEs through a Baltic food chain was also studied, including C. tenuicorne, Gammarus spp., three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), and perch (Perca fluviatilis). A small portion of the OH-PBDEs were observed to be methylated in the alga, or by associated bacteria. The methylated OH-PBDEs biomagnified in the food chain up to perch, in which they were converted back to the OH-PBDEs via demethylation. The OH-PBDEs and their methylated counterparts were also partially debrominated in the food chain, which resulted in high concentration of 6-OH-BDE47 in the perch. This congener is the most toxic OH-PBDE with regards to OXPHOS disruption.

Another biotransformation of OH-PBDEs was identified in Baltic Sea blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). High concentrations of OH-PBDEs were conjugated with lipophilic moieties, e.g. fatty acids. This increases the residence time of the OH-PBDEs in the mussels. Mussels have been suggested to conjugate steroids with fatty acids as a means to regulate hormone levels. The conjugation of OH-PBDEs to fatty acids may occur due to intrusion into this pathway. Methods were developed to include quantification of conjugated OH-PBDEs in the analysis of mussels.

OH-PBDEs were also quantified in blood from Baltic Sea grey seals (Halichoerus grypus). Seals originating from the Baltic proper were observed to be more highly exposed to 6-OH-BDE47 than seals from the Gulf of Bothnia. However, the levels of OH-PBDEs were generally low. A major effort was invested into securing these results, including development of a new analytical method. Blood obtained from dead seals is a difficult matrix for quantification of OH-PBDEs, and previous attempts using an established method yielded unsatisfactory results.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Stockholm: Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2016. s. 78
Nyckelord
OH-PBDEs, Baltic Sea, Biosynthesis, Environmental fate, Wildlife exposure, Metabolism, Analytical methods, Ceramium tenuicorne, Blue mussel, Gammarus spp., Stickleback, Perch, Grey Seal
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan kemi
Forskningsämne
miljökemi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-135789 (URN)978-91-7649-585-8 (ISBN)978-91-7649-586-5 (ISBN)
Disputation
2017-01-17, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Anmärkning

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript.

Tillgänglig från: 2016-12-22 Skapad: 2016-11-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-12-08Bibliografiskt granskad

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