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Cytosolic splice isoform of Hsp70 nucleotide exchange factor Fes1 is required for the degradation of misfolded proteins in yeast
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.ORCID-id: 0000-0003-2944-6965
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut. Stockholms universitet, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
Vise andre og tillknytning
2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Molecular Biology of the Cell, ISSN 1059-1524, E-ISSN 1939-4586, Vol. 27, nr 8, s. 1210-1219Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Cells maintain proteostasis by selectively recognizing and targeting misfolded proteins for degradation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Hsp70 nucleotide exchange factor Fes1 is essential for the degradation of chaperone-associated misfolded proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Here we show that the FES1 transcript undergoes unique 3' alternative splicing that results in two equally active isoforms with alternative C-termini, Fes1L and Fes1S. Fes1L is actively targeted to the nucleus and represents the first identified nuclear Hsp70 nucleotide exchange factor. In contrast, Fes1S localizes to the cytosol and is essential to maintain proteostasis. In the absence of Fes1S, the heat-shock response is constitutively induced at normally non-stressful conditions. Moreover, cells display severe growth defects when elevated temperatures, amino acid analogues or the ectopic expression of misfolded proteins, induce protein misfolding. Importantly, misfolded proteins are not targeted for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. These observations support the notion that cytosolic Fes1S maintains proteostasis by supporting the removal of toxic misfolded proteins by proteasomal degradation. This study provides key findings for the understanding of the organization of protein quality control mechanisms in the cytosol and nucleus.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
2016. Vol. 27, nr 8, s. 1210-1219
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
cellbiologi; molekylär biovetenskap
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-129116DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E15-10-0697ISI: 000375753600006PubMedID: 26912797OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-129116DiVA, id: diva2:919687
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-04-14 Laget: 2016-04-14 Sist oppdatert: 2020-03-05bibliografisk kontrollert
Inngår i avhandling
1. Regulation of Hsp70 function by nucleotide-exchange factors
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Regulation of Hsp70 function by nucleotide-exchange factors
2016 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Protein folding is the process in which polypeptides in their non-native states attain the unique folds of their native states. Adverse environmental conditions and genetic predisposition challenge the folding process and accelerate the production of proteotoxic misfolded proteins. Misfolded proteins are selectively recognized and removed from the cell by processes of protein quality control (PQC). In PQC molecular chaperones of the Heat shock protein 70 kDa (Hsp70) family play important roles by recognizing and facilitating the removal of misfolded proteins. Hsp70 function is dependent on cofactors that regulate the intrinsic ATPase activity of the chaperone. In this thesis I have used yeast genetic, cell biological and biochemical experiments to gain insight into the regulation of Hsp70 function in PQC by nucleotide-exchange factors (NEFs). Study I shows that the NEF Fes1 is a key factor essential for cytosolic PQC. A reverse genetics approach demonstrated that Fes1 NEF activity is required for the degradation of misfolded proteins associated with Hsp70 by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Specifically, Fes1 association with Hsp70-substrate complexes promotes interaction of the substrate with downstream ubiquitin E3 ligase Ubr1. The consequences of genetic removal of FES1 (fes1Δ) are the failure to degrade misfolded proteins, the accumulation of protein aggregates and constitutive induction of the heat-shock response. Taken the experimental data together, Fes1 targets misfolded proteins for degradation by releasing them from Hsp70. Study II describes an unusual example of alternative splicing of FES1 transcripts that leads to the expression of the two alternative splice isoforms Fes1S and Fes1L. Both isoforms are functional NEFs but localize to different compartments. Fes1S is localized to the cytosol and is required for the efficient degradation of Hsp70-associated misfolded proteins. In contrast, Fes1L is targeted to the nucleus and represents the first identified nuclear NEF in yeast. The identification of distinctly localized Fes1 isoforms have implications for the understanding of the mechanisms underlying nucleo-cytoplasmic PQC. Study III reports on the mechanism that Fes1 employs to regulate Hsp70 function. Specifically Fes1 carries an N-terminal domain (NTD) that is conserved throughout the fungal kingdom. The NTD is flexible, modular and is required for the cellular function of Fes1. Importantly, the NTD forms ATP-sensitive complexes with Hsp70 suggesting that it competes substrates of the chaperone during Fes1-Hsp70 interactions. Study IV reports on methodological development for the efficient assembly of bacterial protein-expression plasmids using yeast homologous recombination cloning and the novel vector pSUMO-YHRC. The findings support the notion that Fes1 plays a key role in determining the fate of Hsp70-associated misfolded substrates and thereby target them for proteasomal degradation. From a broader perspective, the findings provide information essential to develop models that describe how Hsp70 function is regulated by different NEFs to participate in protein folding and degradation.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Stockholm: Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, 2016. s. 73
Emneord
Heat shock proteins (Hsps), Hsp70, Molecular chaperones, Nucleotide-exchange factors (NEFs), Protein quality control (PQC), Proteostasis, Ubiquitin-proteasome system
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
cellbiologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-129118 (URN)978-91-7649-376-2 (ISBN)
Disputas
2016-06-10, Högbomsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Merknad

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript.

Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-05-18 Laget: 2016-04-14 Sist oppdatert: 2020-01-23bibliografisk kontrollert
2. Regulation of cellular Hsp70: Proteostasis and aggregate management
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Regulation of cellular Hsp70: Proteostasis and aggregate management
2017 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Proteins have to be folded to their native structures to be functionally expressed. Misfolded proteins are proteotoxic and negatively impact on cellular fitness. To maintain the proteome functional proteins are under the constant surveillance of dedicated molecular chaperones that perform protein quality control (PQC). Using the model organism yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae this thesis investigates the molecular mechanisms that cells employ to maintain protein homeostasis (proteostasis). In Study I the role of the molecular chaperone Hsp110 in the disentanglement and reactivation of aggregated proteins was investigated. We found that Hsp110 is essential for cellular protein disaggregation driven by the molecular chaperones Hsp40, Hsp70 and Hsp104 and characterized its involvement via regulation of Hsp70 ATPase activity as a nucleotide exchange factor. In Study II we found out that Hsp110 undergoes translational frameshifting during its expression resulting in a nuclear targeting. Nuclear Hsp110 interacts with Hsp70 and reprograms the proteostasis system to better deal with stress and to confer longevity. Study III describes regulation of Hsp70 function in PQC by the nucleotide exchange factor Fes1. We found that rare alternative splicing regulates Fes1 subcellular localization in the cytosol and nucleus and that the cytosolic isoform has a key role in PQC. In Study IV we have revealed the molecular mechanism that Fes1 employ in PQC. We show that Fes1 carries a specialized release domain (RD) that ensures the efficient release of protein substrates from Hsp70, explaining how Fes1 maintains the Hsp70-chaperone system clear of persistent misfolded proteins. In Study V we report on the use of a novel bioluminescent reporter (Nanoluc) for use in yeast to measure the gene expression and protein levels. In summary, this thesis contributes to the molecular understanding of chaperone-dependent PQC mechanisms both at the level of individual components as well as how they interact to ensure proteostasis.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Stockholm: Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, 2017
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
molekylär biovetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-148410 (URN)978-91-7649-998-6 (ISBN)978-91-7649-999-3 (ISBN)
Disputas
2017-12-08, E306, Arrheniuslaboratorierna, Svante Arrhenius väg 20 C, Stockholm, 10:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Merknad

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-11-15 Laget: 2017-10-24 Sist oppdatert: 2017-11-09bibliografisk kontrollert
3. Controlling protein homeostasis through regulation of Heat shock factor 1
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Controlling protein homeostasis through regulation of Heat shock factor 1
2019 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

In order to thrive in a changing environment all organisms need to ensure protein homeostasis (proteostasis). Proteostasis is ensured by the proteostasis system that monitors the folding status of the proteome and regulates cell physiology and gene expression to counteract any perturbations. An increased burden on the proteostasis system activates Heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1) to induce transcription of the heat shock response (HSR), a transiently induced transcriptional program including core proteostasis genes, importantly those encoding the Hsp70 class of molecular chaperones. The HSR assists cells in counteracting the harmful effects of protein folding stress and restoring proteostasis. The work presented in this thesis is based on experiments with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) model with the overall goal of deciphering how Hsp70 detects and impacts on perturbations of cellular proteostasis and controls Hsf1 activity.

In Study I we describe the fundamental mechanism by which Hsp70 maintains Hsf1 in its latent state by controlling its ability to bind DNA. We found that Hsf1 and unfolded proteins directly compete for binding to the Hsp70 substrate-binding domain. During heat shock the pool of unfolded proteins mainly consist of misfolded, newly synthesized proteins. Severe out-titration of Hsp70 by misfolded substrates resulted in unrestrained Hsf1 activity inducing a previously uncharacterized genetic hyper-stress program. More insight into regulation of Hsp70 availability was gained in Study II where the two splice isoforms of the Hsp70 nucleotide exchange factor Fes1 were characterized. We found that the cytosolic splice isoform Fes1S is crucial to release unfolded proteins from Hsp70 and that impaired release results in strong Hsf1 activation.

In Study III we developed methodology to easily measure the rapid changes in Hsf1 activity upon proteostatic perturbations and to monitor protein turnover using the novel bioluminescent reporter NanoLuc optimized for yeast expression (yNluc). In Study IV we report that yNluc also functions as an in vivo reporter that detects severe perturbations of de novo protein folding by its failure to fold to an active conformation under such conditions.

Finally, in Study V we investigated how organellar proteostasis impacts on the availability of cytosolic Hsp70. We found that a lowered mitochondrial proteostatic load as a result of high translation accuracy extended lifespan and improved cytosolic proteostasis capacity, evidenced by more rapid stress recovery and less sensitivity to toxic misfolded proteins. In contrast, lowered mitochondrial translation accuracy decreased lifespan and impaired management of cytosolic protein aggregates as well as elicited a general transcriptional stress response.

Taken together, the findings presented in this thesis advance our understanding of how the regulatory mechanisms of the proteostasis system function. Furthermore, they provide novel methodology that will facilitate future studies to improve our understanding how cells integrate internal and external stress cues to control proteostasis.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Stockholm: Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, 2019. s. 60
Emneord
stress, protein homeostasis, molecular chaperones, heat shock response, Hsf1, Hsp70, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
molekylär biovetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-167081 (URN)978-91-7797-688-2 (ISBN)978-91-7797-708-7 (ISBN)
Disputas
2019-05-21, Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Svante Arrhenius väg 20, Stockholm, 10:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Merknad

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 1: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-04-25 Laget: 2019-03-25 Sist oppdatert: 2019-04-11bibliografisk kontrollert

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