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Properties, performance and associated hazards of state-of-the-art durable water repellent (DWR) chemistry for textile finishing
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
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Number of Authors: 62016 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 91, p. 251-264Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Following the phase-out of long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), the textile industry had to find alternatives for side-chain fluorinated polymer based durable water repellent (DWR) chemistries that incorporated long perfluoroalkyl side chains. This phase-out and subsequent substitution with alternatives has resulted in a market where both fluorinated and non-fluorinated DWRs are available. These DWR alternatives can be divided into four broad groups that reflect their basic chemistry: side-chain fluorinated polymers, silicones, hydrocarbons and other chemistries (including dendrimer and inorganic nanoparticle chemistries). In this critical review, the alternative DWRs are assessed with regard to their structural properties and connected performance, loss and degradation processes resulting in diffuse environmental emissions, and hazard profiles for selected emitted substances. Our review shows that there are large differences in performance between the alternative DWRs, most importantly the lack of oil repellency of non-fluorinated alternatives. It also shows that for all alternatives, impurities and / or degradation products of the DWR chemistries are diffusively emitted to the environment. Our hazard ranking suggests that hydrocarbon based DWR is the most environmentally benign, followed by silicone and side-chain fluorinated polymer-based DWR chemistries. Industrial commitments to reduce the levels of impurities in silicone based and side-chain fluorinated polymer based DWR formulations will lower the actual risks. There is a lack of information on the hazards associated with DWRs, in particular for the dendrimer and inorganic nanoparticle chemistries, and these data gaps must be filled. Until environmentally safe alternatives, which provide the required performance, are available our recommendation is to choose DWR chemistry on a case-by-case basis, always weighing the benefits connected to increased performance against the risks to the environment and human health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 91, p. 251-264
Keywords [en]
Hazard assessment, Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, PFAS, Silicones, Wax, Dendrimers
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-131212DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2016.02.035ISI: 000375630500026PubMedID: 26994426OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-131212DiVA, id: diva2:936846
Available from: 2016-06-14 Created: 2016-06-14 Last updated: 2019-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The missing links: Towards an Informed Substitution of Durable Water Repellent Chemicals for Textiles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The missing links: Towards an Informed Substitution of Durable Water Repellent Chemicals for Textiles
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Durable water repellents (DWRs) that provide liquid repellency to functional textiles are part of an ongoing global substitution process. The process of substitution was initiated after DWRs based on side-chain fluorinated polymers (long-chain SFPs) were identified to contribute to the diffuse release of long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to the environment. Long-chain PFAAs are organic contaminants that are extremely environmentally persistent, have a propensity to bioaccumulate, and are toxic to wildlife and humans. This thesis aims to support the substitution process by identifying alternative DWRs that combine functionality with a benign environmental profile. As part of the SUPFES project, a cooperation between academic and industrial research groups, several studies were conducted in a three-step approach to form a basis for an informed substitution process. This approach included practical tests of functionality (STEP 1) of DWR alternatives in different textile applications, experimental work and desk-based review of the literature to determine 13 hazard endpoints (STEP 2) and life cycle assessment (STEP 3). DWR alternatives were grouped into short-chain SFPs, silicones (Sis) and hydrocarbons (HCs). To profile their environmental behaviour, potential loss mechanisms that cause the release of critical (i.e. potentially hazardous) chemicals were estimated and confirmed experimentally.

The results showed that no DWR substitute provided a universal solution considering functionality (STEP 1) and the associated chemical hazard together (STEP 2). Short-chain SFPs exhibit high durabilities and repellency of liquids of all different polarities, but lead to the release of extremely persistent short-chain PFAAs. Some HCs are more environmentally benign in terms of human health and ecological risk, and show a high water repellency as well as durability, but do not repel liquids with very low surface tension. Thus, we suggest to choose DWR alternatives according to specific protection needs that are required in different segments of the textile market. For consumer outdoor clothing, that mainly require water repellency, a trade-off by using more environmentally friendly materials which do not offer complete stain repellency could be made. For other textile segments, such as protective work clothing, where no compromise of safety is possible, short-chain SFP substitutes are today the only viable option.

The loss of textile fibres from functional textiles and the degradation of the fibre-bound DWR coatings after their emission was identified to be a loss mechanism that leads to the long-term release of persistent contaminants. Fibre loss of short-chain SFP containing textiles, due to domestic washing, was characterised for size and amount as well as their total fluorine content. Results showed that the fibres lost can still contain the fluorinated DWR coatings and likely form a long-term emission source of PFAAs through their accumulation and slow degradation in the environment. These results provide further information for the life cycle assessment (LCA) (STEP 3).

The expected long-term environmental release of extremely persistent short-chain PFAAs, suggests that DWRs based on SFPs are not a sustainable substitution solution. Therefore, new concepts in textile technology are needed for a complete substitution of fluorinated DWRs. Our stepwise approach generates useful data to make an informed judgment about possible DWR alternatives and will together with the LCA provide much needed guidance in the substitution process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2019. p. 53
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-168250 (URN)978-91-7797-680-6 (ISBN)978-91-7797-681-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-06-13, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens husSvante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
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Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Submitted.

Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-04-26 Last updated: 2019-05-14Bibliographically approved

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