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Metal contamination at recreational boatyards linked to the use of antifouling paints-investigation of soil and sediment with a field portable XRF
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7526-5295
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Number of Authors: 32016 (English)In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 10, p. 10146-10157Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The application of a field portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (FPXRF) to measure Cu, Zn, and Pb in soil and sediments at recreational boatyards by Lake Malaren in Sweden was investigated. Confirmatory chemical analysis on freeze-dried samples shows that, ex situ, the FPXRF produces definitive level data for Cu and Zn and quantitative screening data for Pb, according to USEPA criteria for data quality. Good agreement was also found between the ex situ measurements and the in situ screening. At each of the two studied boatyards, >40 in situ soil measurements were carried out. Statistical differences in soil concentration based on land use were consequently found: the areas used for boat storage and maintenance were significantly higher in Cu and Zn than the areas used for car parking and transportation. The metal pollution in the boat storage areas is therefore shown to be directly linked to hull maintenance activities during which metal-containing antifouling paint particles are shed, end up on the ground, and consequently pollute the soil. In the boat storage areas, the Cu and Zn concentrations often exceeded the national guideline values for soil. In this study, they were also shown to increase with increasing age of the boatyard operation. Pb soil concentrations were only elevated at a few measurement points, reflecting the phasing out of Pb compounds from antifouling products over the past 2 decades. In the surface sediments, concentrations of Cu and Zn were 2-3 times higher compared to deeper levels. No decrease in metal concentration with time was found in the sediments, indicating that boat owners are not complying with the ban of biocide-containing paints in freshwater introduced over 20 years ago.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 23, no 10, p. 10146-10157
Keywords [en]
Antifouling paint, Boatyard, Soil, Sediment, XRF, Cu, Zn, Pb
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-131544DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-6241-0ISI: 000376421400085PubMedID: 26873824OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-131544DiVA, id: diva2:944942
Available from: 2016-06-30 Created: 2016-06-21 Last updated: 2022-03-23Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Occurrence and environmental risk assessment of antifouling paint biocides from leisure boats
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occurrence and environmental risk assessment of antifouling paint biocides from leisure boats
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The use of biocidal antifouling (AF) paints is the most common way to prevent fouling on leisure boat hulls. The main aim of this thesis was to investigate the pathways through which AF biocides, past and present, may reach the environment through their use on leisure boats and to improve the risk assessment of biocidal AF paints intended for amateur use. The work presented focuses mainly on the Baltic Sea, with emphasis on regulation and risk assessment procedures in Sweden. A new method was developed for the quantification of nowadays banned organotin compounds (OTCs) such as tributyltin (TBT) in paint flakes (paper I). OTCs were detected in hull paint scrapings from three countries around the Baltic Sea. Thus, historic layers of organotin paint on leisure boats may constitute as sources of TBT to the marine environment. Total tin was identified as an indicator for the presence of OTCs on boat hulls, allowing for quicker identification of vessels in need of remediation. Nowadays, most AF paints tend to contain high amounts of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn). The use of AF paints was shown to cause exceedance of guideline values for these two metals in soil, sediment and water in various investigated marinas (papers II and IV). The pollution of boatyard soil was linked to hull maintenance activities carried out over unprotected ground (paper II). AF paints were also found to impact both the concentration and speciation of dissolved Cu and Zn in two Baltic Sea marinas, with increased concentrations as well as an increased proportion of bioavailable species as a function of an increased number of moored boats (paper IV). A new method utilizing X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) was used to derive the release rates of Cu and Zn in the field for five commercially available AF paints for amateur use (paper III). Salinity and paint properties were found to be important parameters affecting the release. The in situ release rates were also found to exceed those derived with current standardized release rate methods. Given the high release rates, none of the studied paints should have been approved for the Swedish market. This finding likely explains the exceedance of guideline values for dissolved Cu and Zn in investigated Baltic Sea marinas (paper IV). In conclusion, there is a need for caution when authorizing new biocides as the phasing out of banned substances can be a lengthy process due to their continued presence in historic paint layers. Additionally, paint-specific release rates determined under conditions reflecting the intended use of the product should be used for a more realistic environmental risk assessment of AF paints.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2019. p. 49
Keywords
Antifouling paint, XRF, leisure boat, recreational boating, copper, zinc, tributyltin, organotin compounds, risk assessment, biocide, metals, release rate
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-167281 (URN)978-91-7797-655-4 (ISBN)978-91-7797-663-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-05-24, William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
BONUS - Science for a better future of the Baltic Sea regionSwedish Environmental Protection Agency
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-03-25 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved

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Lagerström, MariaEklund, Britta

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