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Determination of semi-volatile and particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Stockholm air with emphasis on the highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrene isomers
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Environment and Health Administration, Sweden.
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Number of Authors: 52016 (English)In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 140, p. 370-380Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been determined in the gaseous phase and in various particulate matter (PM) size fractions at different locations in and outside of Stockholm, Sweden, representative of street level, urban and rural background. The focus has been on the seldom determined but highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrene isomers (DBPs) dibenzo[a,I]pyrene, dibenzo [a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene. PAHs with 3 rings were found to be mainly associated with the vapor phase (>90%) whereas PAHs with 5-6 rings were mostly associated with particulate matter (>92%) and the 4-ringed PAHs partitioned between the two phases. PAH abundance was determined to be in the order street level > urban background > rural background with the PM10 street level 2010 mean of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) reaching 0.24 ng/m(3), well below the EU annual limit value of 1 ng/m(3). In addition, higher PAH concentrations were found in the sub-micron particle fraction (PM1) as compared to the super -micron fraction (PM1-10) with the abundance in PM1 varying between 57 and 86% of the total PAHs. The B[a]P equivalent concentrations derived for DB[a,l]P and total DBPs exceeded 1-2 and 2-4 times, respectively, that of B[a]P at the four sampling sites; therefore underestimation of the cancer risk posed by PAHs in air could be made if the DBPs were not considered in risk assessment using the toxic equivalency approach, whilst the high correlation (p < 0.001) found in the relative concentrations supports the use of B[a]P as a marker substance for assessment of the carcinogenic risk associated to PAHs. However, the big difference in concentration ratios of B[a]P and the DBPs between the present study and some literature data calls for further research to evaluate the temporal and spatial invariance of the B[a]P/DBP ratios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 140, p. 370-380
Keywords [en]
Ambient air, Particulate matter, PAH, Benzo[a]pyrene, Benzo[a]pyrene equivalence, Dibenzo[a, l]pyrene, Toxicity
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-133369DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.06.007ISI: 000380083200033OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-133369DiVA, id: diva2:968081
Available from: 2016-09-12 Created: 2016-09-06 Last updated: 2018-09-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Various Environmental Matrices: Emphasis on extraction method development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Various Environmental Matrices: Emphasis on extraction method development
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Very recently, air pollution was declared the world’s single largest environmental health risk by the World Health Organization. The goal of this thesis is to contribute to a better assessment of air pollution through the development of novel and exhaustive extraction methods for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are mutagenic and carcinogenic air pollutants.

The methods were developed and validated for the extraction of PAHs in both the semi-volatile fraction and particulate matter with application to samples derived from major sources of PAHs (diesel exhaust, coal fly ash and wood smoke samples). Pressurized liquid extraction was used because it allows a high sample throughput with reduced solvent requirements and analysis time compared to other traditionally used techniques, such as Soxhlet extraction.

The results presented herein show that the extraction conditions used when analyzing PAHs need to be evaluated to avoid underestimating their concentrations. This is especially true for the human carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene, which is often used as an indicator in the cancer risk assessments of PAHs, and the dibenzopyrene isomers due to their potentially high carcinogenicities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2014. p. 56
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-107175 (URN)978-91-7447-964-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-10-09, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
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Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Accepted. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-09-18 Created: 2014-09-04 Last updated: 2018-09-13Bibliographically approved

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