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Comparing temporal trends of organochlorines in guil-lemot eggs and Baltic herring: Advantages and disadvantages for se-lecting sentinel species for environmental monitoring
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2862-9949
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
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2014 (English)In: Marine Environmental Research, ISSN 0141-1136, E-ISSN 1879-0291, Vol. 100, 38-47 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Within Europe, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) is aimed at addressing the chemical status and quality of the marine environment. One of the main goals is to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) in the marine environment. Environmental monitoring of biota e.g., Baltic herring and guillemot eggs, is conducted annually in Sweden to follow temporal changes in environmental contaminants. To determine the suitability of guillemot eggs as a sentinel species for investigating GES, we compared temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in these two species from single sampling sites within Sweden.

Lipid content from guillemot eggs was consistently high and stable (yearly mean for >40 years, ∼12%) compared to that of herring (yearly mean for >20 years, ∼3%). A significant decreasing trend of ΣPCDD/F in TEQ WHO1998 was observed in guillemot eggs, but no trend was seen in herring. CB118 significantly decreased in both species, but in the last 10 years this decrease was not significant in herring. A number of advantages, such as high lipid content in the egg and a low coefficient of variation make guillemot suitable as a sentinel species. The advantages and disadvantages of using either guillemot eggs or Baltic herring are compared.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 100, 38-47 p.
Keyword [en]
Baltic Sea, Clupea harengus, Dioxins, Ecotoxicology, Guillemot eggs, Herring, Pollution monitoring, Seabirds, Sentinel species, Uria aalge
National Category
Chemical Sciences Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-134690DOI: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2014.02.007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-134690DiVA: diva2:1037402
Available from: 2016-10-14 Created: 2016-10-14 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Improved Assessment in Environmental Monitoring of POPs: Using monitoring data from the aquatic ecosystem and human milk
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improved Assessment in Environmental Monitoring of POPs: Using monitoring data from the aquatic ecosystem and human milk
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The thesis deals with several aspects of monitoring of persistent organic contaminants (POPs) in biological matrices, for example choice of sample, sampling design, and statistical treatment of data both for temporal and spatial trends and for compliance towards a set target value. The efficiency has been evaluated through statistical power analyses. Contaminant data from more than 4 decades from the Swedish National Monitoring Programs for monitoring of contaminants in biota (marine, freshwater and human health), has been quantitatively evaluated both temporally and spatially and for compliance. The aim was also to evaluate the suitability of different matrices, i.e. herring (Clupea harengus), guillemot (Uria aalge) egg, cod (Gadus morhua), perch (Perca fluviatilis), eelpout (Zoarces viviparous), blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), pike (Esox lucius), Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and human milk, for monitoring of POPs with the overall aim to improve the assessment within monitoring programs.

The results show that variation can be reduced by using pooled samples including more specimens but fewer chemical analyses, which in turn generate a higher statistical power to a lower cost, at least in cases where the cost of collection and sampling is considerably lower than the cost of chemical analysis. However, there are also a number of advantages using individual samples, such as information of sample variance and maximum value, which allows the choice of an appropriate central measure and direct adjustment of confounding factors.

Generally, the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) have decreased both in marine and freshwater biota but concentrations are still higher in the Baltic compared to e.g. the North Sea. The levels of dioxinlike-PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) have decreased in human milk over time, but not to the same extent in fish and guillemot egg from the Baltic and the freshwater environment. This may be explained by the dietary advice developed by the Swedish Food Administration with the goal that girls, reproductive aged, and pregnant women should eat less food containing high levels of PCDD/Fs. Thus the levels in milk could continue to decrease at the same rate although the temporal trend in the environment has slowed down or leveled out.

The most essential regarding the choice of species and matrices for contaminant monitoring, is that the species and organ fit the purpose of the monitoring.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2016. 83 p.
Keyword
Environmental monitoring, temporal trends, power analysis, sampling strategy, PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB, PCDD/Fs, fish, bird eggs, blue mussels, human milk
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-134769 (URN)978-91-7649-527-8 (ISBN)978-91-7649-528-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-12-09, William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
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Available from: 2016-11-16 Created: 2016-10-18 Last updated: 2016-11-16Bibliographically approved

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