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Catching Up in Crime? Long-Term Processes of Recidivism Across Gender
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6191-7002
2016 (English)In: Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology, ISSN 2199-4641, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 371-395Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: While males are heavily overrepresented in almost every crime category that may lead to a conviction, there is ambiguity in the predictive value of gender on recidivism patterns over the life course. By using a complete Swedish birth cohort born in 1965, the present study is able to examine the long-term recidivism patterns in a substantial number of convicted males (N = 27,071) and females (N = 7531) followed up to age 47. The aims are to (1) examine the extent to which long-term recidivism patterns are similar in males and females and (2) assess the predictive power of gender on recidivism as these males and females accumulate additional convictions over the course of their lives.

Methods: Repeated event history data of criminal convictions is analyzed utilizing detailed information on convictions.

Results: The analysis shows that the decline over time in the risk for recidivism, as previously demonstrated in male samples, is replicated for females. In connection with the first and second convictions, males had a stronger tendency toward recidivism than females, but the recidivism risk among females becomes increasingly similar to that found among males as convictions accumulate over the life course. The study also shows that being convicted of a drug offense is a more pronounced predictor of recidivism among females than among males.

Conclusions: The results suggest that the predictive value of gender for recidivism is conditional on criminal history. The results are discussed in the light of developmental and life course theories of continuity in crime.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016. Vol. 2, no 3, p. 371-395
Keywords [en]
Developmental and life course criminology, Gender, Criminal history, Event history analysis, Repeated events
National Category
Other Social Sciences Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Criminology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-134838DOI: 10.1007/s40865-016-0035-4OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-134838DiVA, id: diva2:1038992
Available from: 2016-10-20 Created: 2016-10-20 Last updated: 2018-09-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Criminal Careers in the Long Run: Patterns and Predictions of Criminal Convictions across Age, Time, and Gender
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Criminal Careers in the Long Run: Patterns and Predictions of Criminal Convictions across Age, Time, and Gender
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Why is it that a small proportion of the population accounts for the majority of crime? This question has stimulated a great deal of theoretical and methodological controversy in criminology. In essence, the debate is rooted in different theoretical underpinnings of continuity and change in crime, and the extent to which it is possible to foresee a life of crime by zeroing in on at-risk juvenile offenders. The current thesis explores four contentious empirical issues that may move this debate forward: the long-term predictability of persistent offending in adulthood on the basis of childhood risk factors (Study I); the magnitude of adult-onset offending (Study II); the predictive value of gender for criminal recidivism (Study III); and the association between birth cohort membership and criminal career parameters (Study IV). All four studies employ longitudinal Swedish administrative data, based on cohorts of individuals born between the early 1940s and the mid-1980s, and followed on the basis of detailed conviction data. The thesis also utilizes qualitative life-history narratives with former at-risk juvenile delinquents. The results suggest that theories aiming to explain crime beyond the transition to adulthood should incorporate factors presumed to cause within-individual change, even among high-risk juvenile offenders. Although childhood cumulative risk, including a wide range of individual, family, school, and peer measures, were clearly associated with adult crime, they had limited value for predicting those persistent offenders who eventually ended up in the tail of the crime distribution. Furthermore, although gender is generally one of the main demographic predictors of criminal convictions, the results indicate that it is important to include females for the purpose of understanding continuity and change in adulthood. This is in part because adult-onset offending is more prevalent within the female offending population than within the male offending population and in part because the risk for criminal recidivism among female offenders becomes increasingly similar to that found among male offenders as convictions accumulate over the life span. Finally, the results suggest that the typical criminal career has undergone significant changes both within and across gender groups during the period since the mid-1970s, a period which has witnessed a historical decline in the aggregate conviction rate in Sweden. Taking this into consideration, the employment and extensive analysis of longitudinal multiple cohort data ought to provide a basis for furthering our knowledge on the inherent complexity of crime trends, while at the same time also locating the study of criminal careers in its historical context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Criminology, Stockholm University, 2018. p. 86
Series
Avhandlingsserie / Kriminologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet, ISSN 1404-1820 ; 40
Keywords
Criminal career, Recidivism, Life course, Longitudinal, Birth cohort, Gender
National Category
Sociology Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Criminology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-159972 (URN)978-91-7797-388-1 (ISBN)978-91-7797-389-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-10-26, Hörsal 7 hus D, Universitetsvägen 10 D, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2018-10-03 Created: 2018-09-12 Last updated: 2018-10-10Bibliographically approved

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