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AZD2184: a radioligand for sensitive detection of beta-amyloid deposits
Molecular Pharmacology, AstraZeneca R&D, Södertälje, Sweden.
Number of Authors: 10
2009 (English)In: Journal of Neurochemistry, ISSN 0022-3042, E-ISSN 1471-4159, Vol. 108, no 5, 1177-1186 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The presence of beta-amyloid plaques in brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and serves as a biomarker for confirmation of diagnosis postmortem. Positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands such as Pittsburgh compound B ([(11)C]-2-(3-fluoro-4-methylamino-phenyl)-benzothiazol-6-ol) (PIB) binds selectively to beta-amyloid and are promising new tools supporting the clinical diagnoses of AD. In addition, such methodology may be useful for evaluation of new drugs aiming at reduction of amyloid plaque load. The objective of this study is to develop a new amyloid selective PET radioligand with higher signal-to-background ratio when compared with existing amyloid PET ligands. The lead compound, AZD2184, (2-[6-(methylamino)pyridin-3-yl]-1,3-benzothiazol-6-ol) was found to have high affinity for amyloid fibrils in vitro (K(d): 8.4 +/- 1.0 nM). Two minutes after i.v. administration in rats, about 1% of the dose was in brain. In vitro autoradiography on cortical brain sections from amyloid-beta precursor protein/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) mice and AD patients showed that while [(3)H]AZD2184 and [(3)H]PIB are mutually displaceable, [(3)H]AZD2184 displays a higher signal-to-background ratio primarily by virtue of lower background binding levels. The ratio of binding ability in prefrontal cortex (high plaque load) to subcortical white matter (background) was 4.5 for [(3)H]AZD2184 and 0.8 for [(3)H]PIB at 1 nM. In adjacent cortical sections from APP/PS1 mouse as well as from AD cortical tissue, [(3)H]AZD2184 and antibodies to human beta-amyloid labeled identical structures. In vivo administration of [(3)H]AZD2184 to APP/PS1 mice further showed that [(3)H]AZD2184 labels amyloid deposits with low non-specific background binding. Taken together, the pre-clinical profile of AZD2184 in relation to the reference ligand PIB, suggests that (11)C-labeled AZD2184 is a potential radioligand for PET-visualization of beta-amyloid deposits in the living human brain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 108, no 5, 1177-1186 p.
Keyword [en]
beta-amyloid, Alzheimers, imaging, plaques, positron emisson tomography
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Research subject
Neurochemistry with Molecular Neurobiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-134881DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05861.xISI: 000263044800008OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-134881DiVA: diva2:1039402
Available from: 2016-10-24 Created: 2016-10-24 Last updated: 2016-11-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Characterization of Diagnostic Tools and Potential Treatments for Alzheimer’s Disease: PET ligands and BACE1 inhibitors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of Diagnostic Tools and Potential Treatments for Alzheimer’s Disease: PET ligands and BACE1 inhibitors
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a very complex disorder and the most common form of dementia. The two pathological hallmarks of AD are extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques in cerebral cortex, and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles. In the early stages of the disease it can be difficult to accurately diagnose AD, as it is difficult to distinguish from normal signs of aging. There is thus a need for sensitive non-invasive tools, able to detect pathophysiological biomarker changes. One such approach is molecular imaging of Aβ plaque load in brain, using PET (positron emission tomography) ligands.

We have developed and characterized two novel Aβ plaque neuroimaging PET ligands, AZD2184 and AZD4694. The 2-pyridylbenzothiazole derivate AZD2184, is a 11C-labeled PET ligand with a higher signal-to-background ratio compared to the widely used PET ligand PIB, a 11C-labeled phenylbenzothiazole based tool. This makes it possible to detect smaller changes in Aβ plaque deposition load, and therefore theoretically, also earlier diagnosis. A drawback with 11C-labeled PET ligands is the relatively short half-life. To meet the need for PET ligands with a longer half-life, we developed the pyridylbenzofuran derivate [18F]AZD4694. Although development of fluorinated radioligands is challenging due to the lipophilic nature of aromatic fluorine, we successfully developed a 18F-labeled PET ligand with a signal-to-background ratio matching PIB, the most widely used 11C-labeled PET ligand in clinical use. 3H-labeled derivates of AZD2184, AZD4694, and PIB, showed lower binding specificity towards Aβ plaques containing ApoE. The ApoE genotype per se did not significantly affect ligand binding, instead, the amount of ApoE incorporated to the Aβ plaques appears to be of importance for the binding characteristics of these amyloid PET ligands.

Beta-secretase 1 (BACE1) mediates the first step in the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) to Aβ peptides, making BACE1 inhibition an attractive therapeutic target in AD. We developed and characterized three novel BACE1 inhibitors, AZD3839, AZ-4217, and AZD3293. AZD3839 and AZ-4217 contains an amidine group which interacts with the catalytic aspartases Asp-32 and Asp-228 of BACE1, effectively inhibiting the enzyme. All three compounds are potent and selective inhibitors of human BACE1, with in vitro potency demonstrated in several cellular models, including primary cortical neurons. All three compound exhibited dose- and time-dependent lowering of plasma, brain, and cerebrospinal fluid Aβ levels in several species, and two of the compounds (AZD3839 and AZD3293) were progressed into clinical trials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Department of Neurochemistry, Stockholm University, 2016
Keyword
Alzheimer’s disease, Diagnostics, Treatment, PET ligand, BACE1
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Neurochemistry with Molecular Neurobiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-134894 (URN)978-91-7649-531-5 (ISBN)978-91-7649-532-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-12-16, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Submitted.

Available from: 2016-11-23 Created: 2016-10-24 Last updated: 2016-11-11Bibliographically approved

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