Exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances through the consumption of fish from lakes affected by aqueous film-forming foam emissions - A combined epidemiological and exposure modeling approach. The SAMINOR 2 Clinical Study
Number of Authors: 8
2016 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 94, 272-282 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Releases of aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) from airport firefighting activities have been identified as important local point sources of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in nearby waterways. PFASs can be taken up by fish, and in turn by the humans that consume them. Despite the global extent of AFFF emissions, few studies exist on related impacts on humans. We aimed to investigate the associations between the consumption of fish from AFFF-affected waters and serum PFAS concentrations in humans using a combination of statistical tools, empirical data, and toxicokinetic modeling. Participants of the SAMINOR 2 Clinical Study were the basis far this study sample, which comprised 74 persons. Fifty-nine participants who reported consuming fish from AFFF-affected waters and 15 nonconsumers completed a questionnaire and gave serum samples. Participants were classified based on their consumption of trout and char: high (n = 16), moderate (n = 16), low (n = 27), and nonconsumers (n = 15); and serum samples were tested for the presence of 15 PFASs. Perfluorooctane sulfonic add (PFOS) was found in all participants, with the highest concentrations detected in the high consumption group (geometric means, 28 ng/mL) compared to the low consumption group and nonconsumers (10 and 11 ng/mL, respectively). In an analysis of variance contrast model, a significant, positive increasing trend was seen for fish consumption and PFOS, perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA). Toxicokinetic modeling allowed us to predict the median increases in serum concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFNA among high consumers within a factor of 2.2. The combination of statistical evaluation and toxicokinetic modeling clearly demonstrated a positive relationship between consumption of fish from AFFF-affected waters and serum PFAS concentrations. Further studies on dietary exposure to other PFASs present in AFFF and its consequences on human health are warranted.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 94, 272-282 p.
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, Aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF), Human serum, Freshwater fish, Exposure modeling
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-135053DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2016.05.030ISI: 000382339000029PubMedID: 27286038OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-135053DiVA: diva2:1043737