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iPTF15dtg: a double-peaked Type Ic supernova from a massive progenitor
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
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Number of Authors: 12
2016 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 592, A89Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context. Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic) arise from the core-collapse of H-(and He-) poor stars, which could either be single Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars or lower-mass stars stripped of their envelope by a companion. Their light curves are radioactively powered and usually show a fast rise to peak (similar to 10-15 d), without any early (in the first few days) emission bumps (with the exception of broad-lined SNe Ic) as sometimes seen for other types of stripped-envelope SNe (e.g., Type IIb SN 1993J and Type Ib SN 2008D). Aims. We have studied iPTF15dtg, a spectroscopically normal SN Ic with an early excess in the optical light curves followed by a long (similar to 30 d) rise to the main peak. It is the first spectroscopically-normal double-peaked SN Ic to be observed. Our aim is to determine the properties of this explosion and of its progenitor star. Methods. Optical photometry and spectroscopy of iPTF15dtg was obtained with multiple telescopes. The resulting light curves and spectral sequence are analyzed and modeled with hydrodynamical and analytical models, with particular focus on the early emission. Results. iPTF15dtg is a slow rising SN Ic, similar to SN 2011bm. Hydrodynamical modeling of the bolometric properties reveals a large ejecta mass (similar to 10 M-circle dot) and strong Ni-56 mixing. The luminous early emission can be reproduced if we account for the presence of an extended (greater than or similar to 500 R-circle dot), low-mass (greater than or similar to 0.045 M-circle dot) envelope around the progenitor star. Alternative scenarios for the early peak, such as the interaction with a companion, a shock-breakout (SBO) cooling tail from the progenitor surface, or a magnetar-driven SBO are not favored. Conclusions. The large ejecta mass and the presence of H-and He-free extended material around the star suggest that the progenitor of iPTF15dtg was a massive (greater than or similar to 35 M-circle dot) WR star that experienced strong mass loss.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 592, A89
Keyword [en]
supernovae: general
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject
Astronomy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-135991DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201628703ISI: 000384722600152OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-135991DiVA: diva2:1050303
Available from: 2016-11-28 Created: 2016-11-28 Last updated: 2017-07-20Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Stripped-envelope supernovae discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stripped-envelope supernovae discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is based on research made by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory [(i)PTF]. The focus is on stripped-envelope (SE) supernovae (SNe) discovered by (i)PTF, and it is closely tied to the research on the SE SN iPTF13bvn, that occurred in the nearby galaxy NGC 5806. This SN was initially thought to have been the explosion of a very massive Wolf-Rayet star, but we have shown that this is very likely not the case. We suggest instead that iPTF13bvn originated from a binary system where the envelope was stripped off from the SN progenitor by tidal forces from a companion (Paper I). PTF12os exploded in the same galaxy as iPTF13bvn, and our analysis shows that PTF12os and  iPTF13bvn were very similar, and that both were also remarkably similar to the Type IIb SN 2011dh, in terms of their light-curves and spectra. In Paper II, hydrodynamical models were used to constrain the explosion parameters of iPTF13bvn, PTF12os and SN 2011dh; finding 56Ni masses in the range 0.063-0.075 solar masses (Ms), ejecta masses in the range 1.85-1.91 Ms, and kinetic energies in the range 0.54-0.94 x 1051 erg. Furthermore, using nebular models and late-time spectroscopy we were able to constrain the Zero-Age Main Sequence (ZAMS) mass to ~ 12 Ms, for iPTF13bvn and ≤ 15 Ms for PTF12os. In current stellar evolution models, stars with these masses on the ZAMS cannot lose their envelopes and become SE SNe without binary interactions. In Paper III we investigate a peculiar SE SN, iPTF15dtg; this SN lacks both hydrogen and helium and shows a double-peaked LC with a broad main LC peak. Using hydrodynamical modeling we show that iPTF15dtg had a very large ejecta mass (~ 10 Ms), resulting from an explosion of a very massive star (~ 35 Ms). The initial peak in the LC can be explained by the presence of extended material around the star, likely due to an episode of strong mass-loss experienced by the progenitor prior to the explosion. In Paper IV we perform a statistical study of the spectra of all 176 SE SNe (Type IIb, Ib and Ic) discovered by (i)PTF. The spectra of Type Ic SNe show O absorption features that are both stronger and broader (indicating faster expansion velocities) compared to Type IIb and Type Ib SNe. These findings along with very weak He absorption support the traditional picture with Type Ic SNe being heavily stripped of their He envelopes prior to the explosions, and argue against alternative explanations, such as differences in explosive mixing of 56Ni among the SE SN subtypes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, 2017. 110 p.
Keyword
supernovae, transients
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject
Astronomy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-145016 (URN)978-91-7649-929-0 (ISBN)978-91-7649-930-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-09-08, sal FB42, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2017-08-16 Created: 2017-07-04 Last updated: 2017-08-17Bibliographically approved

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Taddia, FrancescoFremling, ChristofferSollerman, JesperKaramehmetoglu, EmirErgon, Mattias
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