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The power of associative learning and the ontogeny of optimal behaviour
Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Brooklyn College, USA; Graduate Center of the City University of New York, USA.
2016 (English)In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 3, no 11, 160734Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Behaving efficiently (optimally or near-optimally) is central to animals' adaptation to their environment. Much evolutionary biology assumes, implicitly or explicitly, that optimal behavioural strategies are genetically inherited, yet the behaviour of many animals depends crucially on learning. The question of how learning contributes to optimal behaviour is largely open. Here we propose an associative learning model that can learn optimal behaviour in a wide variety of ecologically relevant circumstances. The model learns through chaining, a term introduced by Skinner to indicate learning of behaviour sequences by linking together shorter sequences or single behaviours. Our model formalizes the concept of conditioned reinforcement (the learning process that underlies chaining) and is closely related to optimization algorithms from machine learning. Our analysis dispels the common belief that associative learning is too limited to produce ‘intelligent’ behaviour such as tool use, social learning, self-control or expectations of the future. Furthermore, the model readily accounts for both instinctual and learned aspects of behaviour, clarifying how genetic evolution and individual learning complement each other, and bridging a long-standing divide between ethology and psychology. We conclude that associative learning, supported by genetic predispositions and including the oft-neglected phenomenon of conditioned reinforcement, may suffice to explain the ontogeny of optimal behaviour in most, if not all, non-human animals. Our results establish associative learning as a more powerful optimizing mechanism than acknowledged by current opinion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 3, no 11, 160734
Keyword [en]
animal learning, optimal behaviour, reinforcement learning, conditioned reinforcement, animal cognition
National Category
Behavioral Sciences Biology
Research subject
Ethology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-136166DOI: 10.1098/rsos.160734ISI: 000389244400054OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-136166DiVA: diva2:1050781
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2015.0005
Available from: 2016-11-30 Created: 2016-11-30 Last updated: 2017-01-09Bibliographically approved

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Enquist, MagnusLind, JohanGhirlanda, Stefano
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