Exploring Trends of C and N Isotope Fractionation to Trace Transformation Reactions of Diclofenac in Natural and Engineered Systems
Number of Authors: 10
2016 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, no 20, 10933-10942 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Although diclofenac ranks among the most frequently detected pharmaceuticals in the urban water cycle, its environmental transformation reactions remain imperfectly understood. Biodegradation-induced changes in N-15/N-14 ratios (epsilon(N) = -7.1 parts per thousand +/- 0.4 parts per thousand) have indicated that compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) may detect diclofenac degradation. This singular observation warrants exploration for further transformation reactions. The present study surveys carbon and nitrogen isotope fractionation in other environmental and engineered transformation reactions of diclofenac. While carbon isotope fractionation was generally small, observed nitrogen isotope fractionation in degradation by MnO2 (epsilon(N) = -7.3 parts per thousand +/- 0.3 parts per thousand), photolysis (epsilon(N) = +1.9 parts per thousand +/- 0.1 parts per thousand), and ozonation (epsilon(N) = +1.5 parts per thousand +/- 0.2 parts per thousand) revealed distinct trends for different oxidative transformation reactions. The small, secondary isotope effect associated with ozonation suggests an attack of O-3 in a molecular position distant from the N atom. Model reactants for outer-sphere single electron transfer generated large inverse nitrogen isotope fractionation (epsilon(N) = +5.7 parts per thousand +/- 0.3 parts per thousand), ruling out this mechanism for biodegradation and transformation by MnO2. In a river model, isotope fractionation-derived degradation estimates agreed well with concentration mass balances, providing a proof-of-principle validation for assessing micropollutant degradation in river sediment. Our study highlights the prospect of combining CSIA with transformation product analysis for a better assessment of transformation reactions within the environmental life of diclofenac.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 50, no 20, 10933-10942 p.
Environmental Engineering Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-136056DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b02104ISI: 000385907200019OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-136056DiVA: diva2:1058510