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Cocaine and cannabinoids in the atmosphere of Northern Europe cities, comparison with Southern Europe and wastewater analysis
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Number of Authors: 7
2016 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 97, 187-194 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study reports the first investigation of atmospheric illicit drug concentrations in Northern Europe usingmeasurements of cocaine and cannabinoids in Amsterdam, London and Stockholm. Further, these measurements were compared to those made in Rome to explore the geographical and inter-city variability. Co-located measurements of atmospheric particulate mass and PAHs were used to help describe and interpret the illicit drug measurements with respect to atmospheric dispersion. Cocaine concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 0.14 ng/m(3) in Amsterdam, from 0.02 to 0.33 ng/m(3) in London and were below quantification limit (3pg/m(3)) in Stockholm. Cannabinol was the only cannabinoidmolecule detected in the three cities. During this campaign, London reported the highest concentrations of cocaine and meaningful differences were detected between the urban background and city centre London sites. Mean cocaine concentrations measured in Amsterdam during March 2011 were also compared with those measured simultaneously in eight Italian cities. The cocaine concentration inAmsterdamwas comparable to that measured at an urban background inMilan and at a densely populated site in Florence. Although correlating atmospheric concentrations directlywith drug prevalence is not possible using current data, links between concentrations of cocaine and estimates of abuse prevalence assessed by the more routinely usedwastewater analysiswere also examined. A statistically significant correlationwas found between the two sets of data (R-2= 0.66; p= 0.00131). Results confirmed that meteorology, population rate and habits of consumption influence the atmospheric concentrations of drugs. If these confounding factors were better controlled for, the techniques described here could became an easy and cost effective tool to index the impact of cocaine abuse in the area; especially where local hot spots need to be identified.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 97, 187-194 p.
Keyword [en]
Illicit drugs, Cocaine, Atmosphere, PM10, Wastewater analysis
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-139304DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2016.09.010ISI: 000389912900022OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-139304DiVA: diva2:1074281
Available from: 2017-02-15 Created: 2017-02-15 Last updated: 2017-02-15Bibliographically approved

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Johansson, Christer
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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
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