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Early steps for successful management in small-scale fisheries: An analysis of fishers', managers' and scientists' opinions preceding implementation
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The chances of fisheries management to achieve positive outcomes increase when fishers and managers agree on the need for management, share preferences for certain management strategies and cooperate on their implementation. This study analyzes fishers’, managers’ and scientists’ opinions on different management measures for seagrass-associated small-scale fisheries in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Areas of agreements as well as disagreements were analyzed to identify common ground and facilitate the initiation of management processes towards more sustainable fisheries. The findings show that most fishers and managers agreed on the need to include seagrasses specifically in future management. There was further agreement on dragnets being the most destructive gears, as well as the use of dragnets being a major threat to local seagrass ecosystems. Gear restrictions excluding illegal dragnets were the favored management measure among all fishers (with fewer dragnet fishers supporting them compared to trap fishers); a result predicted by half of the managers, while the majority of managers advocated the use of temporary closures. Differences between fishers and managers were found concerning seaweed farming, eutrophication and erosion being potential threats to seagrass meadows. Finally, a majority of all fishers were willing to participate in monitoring and controls, and most fishers thought that they themselves and their communities would benefit the most from establishing seagrass management. The results of this study show that co-managed gear restrictions and the inclusion of different key actos in the management process including enforcement are promising starting points for the implementation of management for more sustainable small-scale seagrass fisheries in Zanzibar. 

Keyword [en]
heterogeneity, small-scale fisheries, co-management, environmental governance, seagrass meadows, social-ecological, seascape, gear restrictions
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Marine Ecotoxicology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-141048OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-141048DiVA: diva2:1085462
Available from: 2017-03-29 Created: 2017-03-29 Last updated: 2017-03-31Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Fishing for sustainability: Towards transformation of seagrass-associated small-scale fisheries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fishing for sustainability: Towards transformation of seagrass-associated small-scale fisheries
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Small-scale fisheries employ many millions of people around the world, and are particularly important in developing countries, where the dependency on marine resources is high and livelihood diversification options are scarce. In many areas of the world however, small-scale fisheries are at risk which threatens the food security and wellbeing of coastal people. Small-scale fisheries management has in many cases been insufficient and new comprehensive approaches are recommended to achieve social-ecological sustainability in the long-term. The aim of this thesis is to analyze empirically how social-ecological elements of seagrass-associated small-scale fisheries in the Western Indian Ocean region can be addressed for a transformation from the current mostly degraded state to more sustainable social-ecological systems and secure future livelihoods. The main method used was semi-structured interviews with local fishers. The main findings show the crucial contributions seagrass-associated small-scale fisheries make to food security and income generation and highlight the need to acknowledge the social-ecological importance of seagrasses in the seascape (Paper I). A discrepancy between low societal gains of the fishing of sea urchin predator fish species and their crucial importance in the food web (in controlling sea urchin populations and the associated grazing pressure on seagrasses) was identified (Paper II). These results suggest catch-and-release practice of sea urchin predator fish species, which could contribute to more balanced predator – sea urchin – seagrass food webs in the long run. The use of illegal dragnets was identified as a major threat to local seagrass meadows (Paper IV). Institutional elements influencing the use of such destructive dragnet were identified to be normative, cultural-cognitive and economic, which constitutes an institutional misfit to the current emphasis on regulative elements in a hierarchical manner (Paper III). Concerning future co-management initiatives, gear restrictions and education were the favoured management measures among all fishers (Paper IV). A majority of fishers were willing to participate in monitoring and controls, and most fishers thought they themselves and their communities would benefit most from seagrass-specific management. These findings highlight the need for actions on multiple scales, being the local-, management-, policy- and governance levels. The suggested actions include: education and exchange of ecological and scientific knowledge, gear management including the cessation of dragnet fishing, strengthening of local institutions, an active participation of fishers in enforcement of existing rules and regulations and an introduction of adequate alternative livelihood options.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 2017. 69 p.
Keyword
small-scale fisheries, co-management, social-ecological systems, ecosystem services, institutions, transformation, seagrass meadows, destructive gear, food-web interactions
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Marine Ecotoxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-141052 (URN)978-91-7649-762-3 (ISBN)978-91-7649-763-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-05-05, Vivi Täckholmsalen, NPQ-huset, Svante Arrhenius väg 20, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 1: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2017-04-10 Created: 2017-03-29 Last updated: 2017-04-03Bibliographically approved

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