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Inclusive Digital Socialisation: Designs of Education and Computer Games in a Global Context
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Digital socialisation is to learn the ways of living online, across national borders, local cultures and societies and has to be inclusive for equal participation. Conditions for this socialisation process are different due to both local and individual limitations. In a high-income country like Sweden, playing computer games are one of the most common practices for digital socialisation among youth online (digital youth), but rarely in school with teachers. Thus, there is limited institutionalised support taking responsibility for the socialisation process online of digital youth. As contrast, in a lower middle-income country like Sri Lanka, telecentres provide holistic community services with free access to computer hardware and sometimes also Internet to bridge an internal digital divide. However, there are still several barriers for inclusive digital socialisation, such as shortage of teachers, infrastructure, accessibility and a language barrier. The problem is that digital youth have to overcome barriers for inclusive digital socialisation, often with limited institutionalised support. Game oriented education (GOE) is a potential approach to bridge these barriers. Thematic questions were: How can environments for inclusive digital socialisation be designed for digital youth who: T1) are gamers that are excluded in school; T2) are living in underprivileged communities; and/or T3) have disabilities and play games? A related thematic main question is: T4) how can education about game accessibility be designed for game developers? Within a design science framework, ethnography showed that GOE with entertainment games enabled gamers excluded in Swedish schools to be included, but could not be sustained by the schools. GOE workshops about programming were a possible way to raise awareness about ICT opportunities at Sri Lankan telecentres. Furthermore, a game prototype for deaf versus blind was demonstrated in workshops within formal education settings in Sweden and Sri Lanka, exploring a design method. Finally, two international online surveys provided data for designing a game accessibility curriculum framework, based upon opinions from researchers and game developers. Conclusions are that GOE may be an environment for inclusive digital socialisation, if it is: 1) sustained in the educational social system; 2) enabled within limits of ICTD; and 3) accessible for digital youth with disabilities. The latter requires: 4) education for game developers. This thesis shows how these requirements may be fulfilled, enabling GOE as a design to achieve inclusive digital socialisation in a global context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University , 2017. , 110 p.
Series
Report Series / Department of Computer & Systems Sciences, ISSN 1101-8526 ; 17-003
Keyword [en]
computer games, education, socialisation, inclusion, exclusion, development, accessibility
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-141340ISBN: 978-91-7649-815-6 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7649-816-3 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-141340DiVA: diva2:1086949
Public defence
2017-05-22, Lilla Hörsalen, NOD-huset, Borgarfjordsgatan 12, Kista, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 5: Manuscript.

Available from: 2017-04-26 Created: 2017-04-04 Last updated: 2017-04-26Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Bridging the Digital Divide in Sri Lankan Tea Estate Areas
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bridging the Digital Divide in Sri Lankan Tea Estate Areas
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries / [ed] Petter Nielsen, Oslo: University of Oslo , 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Sri Lanka is characterised by rapid economic growth combined with fast technological advancements. However, these advancements do not reach out to the entire society. The purpose of this paper is to examine the manifestations of the internal digital divide in the Sri Lankan tea estate context. With their particular history and socioeconomic structures, tea estate areas face serious challenges in bringing their whole population into the 21st century where digital literacy plays a crucial role in facilitating a full participation in the society. This study analyses the digital divide with a specific perspective on gender issues and people with disabilities. We discuss the role of education, social-economic structures, cultures and languages in the manifestations of the digital divide. We also examine the telecentre projects and their role in the effort of bridging the digital divide as they provide access to the information and communication technology (ICT) and the Internet as well as they provide training in digital literacies. We comment on the potential of open data movement underlining the crucial role of education and training in the process of citizen empowerment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oslo: University of Oslo, 2015
Keyword
Digital infrastructure, Digital divide, Digital literacies, Education for all, Tea estate areas, Sri Lanka
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-122793 (URN)978-82-7368-465-3 (ISBN)
Conference
WG 9.4: Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries, Jetwing Blue, Negombo, Sri Lanka, 20-22 May, 2015
Available from: 2015-11-11 Created: 2015-11-10 Last updated: 2017-04-18Bibliographically approved
2. Telecenters for the Future in Tea Estates of Sri Lanka
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Telecenters for the Future in Tea Estates of Sri Lanka
2016 (English)In: ICT for Promoting Human Development and Protecting the Environment: 6th IFIP World Information Technology Forum, WITFOR 2016 San José, Costa Rica, September 12–14, 2016 Proceedings / [ed] Francisco J. Mata, Ana Pont, 2016, 121-131 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper reports on a study conducted at one of the Sri Lankan tea estate districts, exploring the present day status of telecenters to examine how they have succeeded in meeting the initial high expectations attached to them. During a field study, two major types of telecenters have been examined through observations, interviews and document analysis. Our findings suggest that the challenges of the initiation phase still prevail. The hopes are placed on the younger generation, as they are regarded as those who can benefit from the ICTs and thus contribute to the development of the remote communities of tea estates. In the concluding discussion, we advocate for the possibilities of co-designing new services that might help to transform the telecenters to meet the needs and requirements of the tea estate communities of today and tomorrow.

Series
IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, ISSN 1868-4238 ; 481
Keyword
Digital divide, Education, Telecenters, Tea estate areas, Accessibility, Sustainability, ICT literacy, Community development, Civic services
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-135445 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-44447-5_12 (DOI)978-3-319-44446-8 (ISBN)978-3-319-44447-5 (ISBN)
Conference
6th IFIP World Information Technology Forum, WITFOR 2016, San José, Costa Rica, September 12-14, 2016
Available from: 2016-11-08 Created: 2016-11-08 Last updated: 2017-04-04Bibliographically approved
3. Game Based Learning of Programming in Underprivileged Communities of Sri Lanka
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Game Based Learning of Programming in Underprivileged Communities of Sri Lanka
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Games Based Learning: The University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, Scotland, 6-7 October 2016 / [ed] Thomas Connolly, Liz Boyle, Academic Conferences Publishing, 2016, 773-780 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Game based learning (GBL) has emerged during the last decade in so-called high-income countries with good access to computers, while many low and middle-income countries are starting to explore GBL and its potential in education. For instance, the increased use of smartphones in Sri Lanka provides better opportunities to play games. Furthermore, a first GBL course at the University of Colombo was organised in 2015. In this study, an effort to raise awareness of the various possibilities of ICTs within underprivileged communities of Sri Lanka was made. A free, web-based game for learning programming was used at two different telecentres during three workshops, with three different age groups: 1) 14 students aged 10-18; 2) 19 students aged 8-16; and 3) 18 school leavers aged 15-20. Telecentres are places providing access to computers, Internet and various services. The progress of participants through the game was observed and notes were taken during the workshops, followed up by group interviews, and a survey of all participants. Our findings show that the participants found the game to be fun and of medium difficulty level. They also expressed that they need to learn English better and improve their computer skills to be able to learn more programming. Despite the limited Internet access, limited number of computers, and language barriers, most students and school leavers completed between 10 to 15 puzzles, including programming concepts of commands, conditions and events. The youngest participants (8 years old) completed at least 5 puzzles. From our results we conclude that without prior programming experience, all the participants became motivated to learn more about programming within the 1.5 hours of the workshop with this GBL approach. This indicates that the learning curve of the GBL approach to learn programming is considerably low whereas the motivation to learn through GBL is high. Furthermore, the GBL approach has good potential to raise awareness of learning opportunities at telecentres. Skills in programming games and related ICT skills can be beneficial for the whole community; it may enable further development of services and designs addressing the local needs. In our future work we aim to follow-up through online communication with the participants regarding how they can continue to learn more about programming and other ICT skills.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Conferences Publishing, 2016
Series
ECGBL Proceedings, ISSN 2049-0992 ; 2016
Keyword
Game Based Learning, Programming, ICT4D, Telecentre
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-135420 (URN)9781911218098 (ISBN)
Conference
The 10th European Conference on Games Based Learning (ECGBL), Paisley, United Kingdom, 6th to 7th October 2016
Available from: 2016-11-08 Created: 2016-11-08 Last updated: 2017-06-22Bibliographically approved
4. Regression from game-oriented to traditional school
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regression from game-oriented to traditional school
2015 (English)In: Journal of Educational Technology Systems, ISSN 0047-2395, E-ISSN 1541-3810, Vol. 43, no 4, 349-370 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pupils in Sweden are socialized in commercial off-the-shelf games, and, therefore, game-oriented formal education can constitute a foundation for further socialization of pupils excluded in school. However, digital illiteracy and traditional views among school staff forced a regression from the game-oriented formal trial education in this study back to the traditional education form. Research questions were as follows: How did the pupils act upon the consequences of the regression? How can these acts inform the design of education in digital culture? These questions were addressed using ethnography over 3 years. The pupils' acts differed depending on their socialization in school and in games. While the game-oriented formal education included all in the socialization process, the regression caused half of the pupils to drop out. The pupils' acts are discussed with a conceptual framework. Conclusions show the need for digital literacy and understanding pupils' perspectives on education among school staff.

Keyword
formal education, digital games, socialization, dialectic
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-119919 (URN)10.1177/0047239515588162 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-11-11 Created: 2015-08-28 Last updated: 2017-04-18Bibliographically approved
5. Inclusive competitive game play through balanced sensory feedback
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inclusive competitive game play through balanced sensory feedback
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Human Aspects of ICT
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-141339 (URN)
Note

In review at AAATE 2017.

Available from: 2017-04-03 Created: 2017-04-03 Last updated: 2017-04-18Bibliographically approved
6. Design of a Curriculum Framework for Raising Awareness of Game Accessibility
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of a Curriculum Framework for Raising Awareness of Game Accessibility
2016 (English)In: Computers Helping People with Special Needs: 15th International Conference, ICCHP 2016, Linz, Austria, July 13-15, 2016, Proceedings, Part I / [ed] Klaus Miesenberger, Christian Bühler, Petr Penaz, 2016, 501-508 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

While game accessibility is well researched, many game developers lack awareness of issues and solutions and there is no framework to support educators in teaching about game accessibility. This study is based on an international survey to accessibility researchers, as well as people in the game industry and related communities. The quantitative data shows the most weighted topics in a curriculum, and the qualitative data provides detailed quotes to explain how a curriculum framework could be designed. Results also show that there is a need to change attitudes to game accessibility, but also to focus on practice, basic concepts and needs of disabled in an introductory course, while an advanced course could focus more on theory and solutions which are harder to implement. Future research is to follow-up this study to further validate our conclusions.

Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 9758
Keyword
Games, Accessibility, Education, Framework, Awareness
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-135410 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-41264-1_68 (DOI)978-3-319-41263-4 (ISBN)978-3-319-41264-1 (ISBN)
Conference
15th International Conference, ICCHP 2016, Linz, Austria, July 13-15, 2016
Available from: 2016-11-08 Created: 2016-11-08 Last updated: 2017-04-04Bibliographically approved
7. Evaluation and Redesign of a Curriculum Framework for Education About Game Accessibility
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation and Redesign of a Curriculum Framework for Education About Game Accessibility
2016 (English)In: Entertainment Computing - ICEC 2016: 15th IFIP TC 14 International Conference, Vienna, Austria, September 28-30, 2016, Proceedings / [ed] Günter Wallner, Simone Kriglstein, Helmut Hlavacs, Rainer Malaka, Artur Lugmayr, Hyun-Seung Yang, 2016, 217-222 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Game Accessibility (GA) has been brought to the front of the video game landscape thanks to a recent but major change in the US law called the Communications and Video Accessibility Act; GA is now a legal obligation for game developers in the US. However, there is a gap between legislation and practice of GA. This study is based upon a previous tentative curriculum framework (TCF) for GA. The questions are: What are the opinions among educators and game developers regarding the TCF? How could the TCF be redesigned? To answer the questions, the TCF was surveyed with practitioners and researchers in the GA community. This paper presents an evaluation and redesign of the TCF, divided into different categories, depending on the students’ profiles, scopes and skills. Furthermore, how the curriculum content can be created and shared is also discussed, as well as future work.

Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 9926
Keyword
Game Accessibility, Game Education, Curriculum Framework
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-135415 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-46100-7_20 (DOI)978-3-319-46099-4 (ISBN)978-3-319-46100-7 (ISBN)
Conference
15th IFIP TC 14 International Conference, Vienna, Austria, September 28-30, 2016
Available from: 2016-11-08 Created: 2016-11-08 Last updated: 2017-04-04Bibliographically approved

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