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iPTF16geu: A multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
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2017 (English)In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 356, no 6335, 291-295 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report the discovery of a multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova, iPTF16geu (SN 2016geu), at redshift z = 0.409. This phenomenon was identified because the light from the stellar explosion was magnified more than 50 times by the curvature of space around matter in an intervening galaxy. We used high-spatial-resolution observations to resolve four images of the lensed supernova, approximately 0.3 arc seconds from the center of the foreground galaxy. The observations probe a physical scale of ~1 kiloparsec, smaller than is typical in other studies of extragalactic gravitational lensing. The large magnification and symmetric image configuration imply close alignment between the lines of sight to the supernova and to the lens. The relative magnifications of the four images provide evidence for substructures in the lensing galaxy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 356, no 6335, 291-295 p.
Keyword [en]
supernova, strong lensing
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-141718DOI: 10.1126/science.aal2729ISI: 000399540100055OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-141718DiVA: diva2:1088538
Available from: 2017-04-12 Created: 2017-04-12 Last updated: 2017-05-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Supernovae seen through gravitational telescopes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supernovae seen through gravitational telescopes
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Galaxies, and clusters of galaxies, can act as gravitational lenses and magnify the light of objects behind them. The effect enables observations of very distant supernovae, that otherwise would be too faint to be detected by existing telescopes, and allows studies of the frequency and properties of these rare phenomena when the universe was young. Under the right circumstances, multiple images of the lensed supernovae can be observed, and due to the variable nature of the objects, the difference between the arrival times of the images can be measured. Since the images have taken different paths through space before reaching us, the time-differences are sensitive to the expansion rate of the universe. One class of supernovae, Type Ia, are of particular interest to detect. Their well known brightness can be used to determine the magnification, which can be used to understand the lensing systems.

In this thesis, galaxy clusters are used as gravitational telescopes to search for lensed supernovae at high redshift. Ground-based, near-infrared and optical search campaigns are described of the massive clusters Abell 1689 and 370, which are among the most powerful gravitational telescopes known. The search resulted in the discovery of five photometrically classified, core-collapse supernovae at redshifts of 0.671<z<1.703 with significant magnification from the cluster. Owing to the power of the lensing cluster, the volumetric core-collapse supernova rates for 0.4 ≤ z < 2.9 were calculated, and found to be in good agreement with previous estimates and predictions from cosmic star formation history. During the survey, two Type Ia supernovae in A1689 cluster members were also discovered, which allowed the Type Ia explosion rate in galaxy clusters to be estimated. Furthermore, the expectations of finding lensed supernovae at high redshift in simulated search campaigns that can be conducted with upcoming ground- and space-based telescopes, are discussed.

Magnification from a galaxy lens also allows for detailed studies of the supernova properties at high redshift that otherwise would not be possible. Spectroscopic observations of lensed high-redshift supernovae Type Ia are of special interest since they can be used to test for evolution of the standard candle nature of these objects. If systematic redshift-dependent properties are found, their utility for future surveys could be challenged. In the thesis it is shown that the strongly lensed and very distant supernova Type Ia PS1-10afx at z=1.4, does not deviate from the well-studied nearby and intermediate populations of normal supernovae Type Ia.

In a different study, the discovery of the first resolved multiply-imaged gravitationally lensed supernova Type Ia is also reported.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Physics, Stockholm University, 2017. 66 p.
Keyword
supernovae, strong gravitational lensing, star formation history, supernova rates, supernovor Gravitationslins
National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-141633 (URN)978-91-7649-797-5 (ISBN)978-91-7649-798-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-05-29, sal FB42, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 10:15 (English)
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Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2017-05-04 Created: 2017-04-12 Last updated: 2017-05-05Bibliographically approved

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Goobar, ArielAmanullah, RahmanMörtsell, EdvardFerretti, RaphaelFremling, ChristofferHangard, LauraPapadogiannakis, SeméliPetrushevska, TanjaSollerman, JesperTaddia, Francesco
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