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Designing, Theorizing, and Reflecting on Information Systems Artifacts and Value Co-Creation in e-Government
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

E-government services in the form of information systems (IS) artifacts create a new arena for co-creation that governments aim to leverage. Design of and knowledge about IS artifacts in value co-creation in e-government can thereby be considered valuable for the future development of e-government. How IS artifacts are used in value co-creation and co-destruction and how the artifacts are developed is however not well understood.

This thesis addresses the problem of how to design for and understand value co-creation in e-government. To address the problem stated, three research questions are posed. (i) How can IS artifacts be designed to enable value co-creation in e-government and what aspects can inhibit value being co-created through the designed artifacts? (ii) How can boundary object theory facilitate the understanding of IS artifacts used in value co-creation and co-destruction in e-government? (iii) How can retrospectives in design science contribute to research on value co-creation in e-government?

Two artifacts in the form of instantiations are designed and evaluated. Design science research methodology is used in two different projects at Swedish municipalities. Secondary analysis is used to identify aspects that inhibit value being co-created through the designed IS artifacts. From these inhibitors, core aspects for public value co-creation are derived. Thereafter, this thesis delves further into how IS artifacts are used in collaborations between citizens, private businesses, and government agencies in order to co-create value. Two case studies are carried out at Swedish government agencies and sociomaterial boundary object theory is used to enhance understanding. The thesis research process ends with a retrospective evaluation of the performed research, using critical realism as its philosophical foundation and guidance.

The result includes one configurable process model that enables value co-creation by facilitating shared understanding between collaborating parties; one mobile service that enables value co-creation through citizen sourcing; aspects that inhibit the realization of co-created value; and four core aspects that need to be considered when designing artifacts for value co-creation. That IS artifacts can be regarded as boundary objects when you aim to study and understand value co-creation and co-destruction between communities in e-government. Descriptions of how IS artifacts, viewed as sociomaterial boundary objects, are used in value co-creation processes between governments, citizens, and businesses and outcomes in terms of value co-creation and co-destruction. The benefit of performing critical realism-guided retrospectives in design science in order to complement prescriptive knowledge with explanatory and critical knowledge is motivated. It is showed that the design of artifacts generates knowledge through the design efforts, regardless of whether they also yield utility.

This thesis contributes to e-government research and practice with knowledge on how to design artifacts that enable value co-creation. Establishes sociomaterial boundary object theory as a theoretical lens that offers a tool to evaluate and design IS artifacts that enable value co-creation and with knowledge on how IS artifacts are used in value co-creation. The thesis also motivates the usefulness of retrospective evaluation in design science. Suggestions for future research include further developing design science retrospectives. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University , 2017. , 218 p.
Series
Report Series / Department of Computer & Systems Sciences, ISSN 1101-8526 ; 17-005
Keyword [en]
Value Co-creation, Design Science, e-Government, Boundary Object, Critical Realism
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-142564ISBN: 978-91-7649-834-7 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7649-835-4 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-142564DiVA: diva2:1092699
Public defence
2017-06-14, Lilla hörsalen, NOD-huset, Borgarfjordsgatan 12, Kista, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 6: Manuscript.

Available from: 2017-05-22 Created: 2017-05-03 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Configurable Process Models for the Swedish Public Sector
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Configurable Process Models for the Swedish Public Sector
2012 (English)In: Advanced Information Systems Engineering: 24th International Conference, CAiSE 2012, Gdansk, Poland, June 25-29, 2012. Proceedings, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, 190-205 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Process orientation and e-services have become essential in revitalizing local government. Although most municipalities oer similar services there is little reuse of e-services or underlying process models among municipalities. Congurable process models represent a promis- ing solution to this challenge by integrating numerous variations of a process in one general model. In this study, design science is used to de- velop a congurable process model to capture the variability of a num- ber of dierent processes. The results include a validated congurable process model for social services, a benets analysis and directions for future development. Although the results are perceived useful by munic- ipal ocials, there are several challenges to be met before the benets of congurable process models are fully utilized.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 7328
Keyword
Configurable process models, public administration processes, e-services, e-government
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-82221 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-31095-9_13 (DOI)978-3-642-31094-2 (ISBN)978-3-642-31095-9 (ISBN)
Conference
CAiSE 2012, Gdansk, Poland, June 25-29, 2012
Available from: 2012-11-12 Created: 2012-11-12 Last updated: 2017-05-03Bibliographically approved
2. Designing an m-government solution: enabling collaboration through citizen sourcing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing an m-government solution: enabling collaboration through citizen sourcing
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2016), Association for Information Systems, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

By combining openness with m-government, OECD and the research community envisage benefits, and action is called for within this field.  The objective of this paper is to answer these calls and address the research question How to design a citizen-sourcing m-government solution to facilitate collaboration between governments and citizens? An instantiation of a complaint and problem management solution is designed and evaluated using design science. The solution (named Munizapp) comprises a mobile application (app) and an integration platform (ePlatform). The app is the front-end for citizens, enabling them to report complaints and problems to municipalities. The ePlatform facilitates seamless two-way communication between the app and back-end case management system in municipalities. Different evaluation activities have been carried out that proved the enabling features of the solution for facilitating collaboration. Usability evaluation and knowledge gained through the research process provides new knowledge to citizen sourcing and e government theory. One example is the need to expand citizen sourcing frameworks to also include stakeholders other than citizens and governments as well as the need to explicate value co-creation between all stakeholders touched by the solution. The paper ends with suggestion for future research that focus on stakeholder analysis and value co-creation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Information Systems, 2016
Keyword
Citizen sourcing, design science, open government, value co-creation
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-130334 (URN)
Conference
The 24th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Istanbul, Turkey, 12-15 June, 2016
Available from: 2016-05-17 Created: 2016-05-17 Last updated: 2017-05-11Bibliographically approved
3. The Promise of a Crowd
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Promise of a Crowd
2013 (English)In: AMCIS 2013 Proceedings, Association for Information Systems, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an evaluation of a mobile complaint and problem-reporting solution made for Swedish municipalities and their citizens. The evaluation is made through a government 2.0 framework to assess the appropriateness of the initiative as a citizen-sourcing solution. The research approach consists of a secondary analysis of empirical data. The researchers have been active participants in gathering the data for the secondary analysis. The results show that although the promise of the crowd is very prominent in the technical platform, municipalities are not prepared to fully utilize the citizen-sourcing solution. The main contribution for research is a widening of the body of knowledge regarding citizen-sourcing by an empirical application of a previously developed theoretical citizen-sourcing framework. The paper contributes to society and practice through highlighting difficulties that can be expected when realizing the promise of the crowd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Information Systems, 2013
Keyword
Government 2.0, Citizen-sourcing, Mobile platform, Government 2.0, Citizen sourcing, mobil plattform
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-97754 (URN)
Conference
19th Americas Conference on Information Systems, Chicago, Illinois, USA, August 15-17, 2013
Available from: 2013-12-17 Created: 2013-12-17 Last updated: 2017-05-11Bibliographically approved
4. Core Aspects for Value Co-Creation in Public Sector
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Core Aspects for Value Co-Creation in Public Sector
2015 (English)In: AMCIS 2015 Proceedings, Association for Information Systems, 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There is a great potential for creating public value by engaging and getting citizens to collaborate together with governments in public activities. E-government and open government enable citizens and governments to collaborate and (co)-create value that benefit both parties, but there are factors inhibiting value to be co-created and realized in the public sector. Research on value co-creation has been mainly focused on the private sector and on positive outcomes and hence it is not enough knowledge of how to make value co-creation successful in the public sector. Drawing from previous research and data gathered during the design of open government services in two different research projects in Sweden, this research proposes core aspects for public value co-creation and identifies inhibitors for its realization. This paper thereby expands the knowledge on value co-creation and depicts that public value co-creation connects the fields of value co-creation, e-government and open government.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Information Systems, 2015
Keyword
Co-creation, open government, inhibitors, core aspects
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-123938 (URN)978-0-9966831-0-4 (ISBN)
Conference
Twenty-first Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS 2015), Puerto Rico, August 13 - 15, 2015
Available from: 2015-12-09 Created: 2015-12-09 Last updated: 2017-05-03Bibliographically approved
5. Understanding Public Sector Collaboration Through Boundary Object Theory: A Case Study of an E-Government Initiative in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding Public Sector Collaboration Through Boundary Object Theory: A Case Study of an E-Government Initiative in Sweden
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 49th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2016) / [ed] Tung X. Bui, Ralph H. Sprague, Jr., IEEE Computer Society, 2016, 2687-2696 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates a complex collaborative e-government initiative in Sweden using Boundary Object theory. 22 Swedish authorities have a joint mission to create a shared submission function to facilitate the communication and collaboration between numerous stakeholders such as forest owners, businesses and several other state-and local authorities. A case study approach is used where data is collected through in-depth interviews with different stakeholders, document studies and one focus group with project managers. Four boundary objects are identified: project, shared submission function, effects analysis and appropriation direction.  By analyzing these four we describe how boundary objects are used to facilitate collaboration within an open government ecosystem.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2016
Series
Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, ISSN 1530-1605
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-130332 (URN)10.1109/HICSS.2016.337 (DOI)978-0-7695-5670-3 (ISBN)
Conference
The 49th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Kauai, Hawaii, 5–8 January 2016
Available from: 2016-05-17 Created: 2016-05-17 Last updated: 2017-05-11Bibliographically approved
6. Explaining value co-creation and co-destruction in e-government using boundary object theory
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Explaining value co-creation and co-destruction in e-government using boundary object theory
2017 (English)In: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 34, no 3, 406-420 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article contributes to the understanding of e-government collaboration, value co-creation and co-destruction when using information systems (IS) artifacts. This is achieved through case study research, based on collaborations between the Swedish Forest Agency and external communities that were intended to co-create value. The collaborations were supported by an IS environment, comprising two IS artifacts that has been in use for several years. The analysis was based on sociomaterial boundary object theory. The philosophical framework underpinning the investigation of the interplay between technological and social aspects of the IS-enabled co-creation processes, i.e. the collaborations, was critical realism. The purpose of this article is, therefore, to analyze the co-creation processes supported by the IS artifacts (viewed as boundary objects) and to consider the outcomes, in terms of value co-creation and co-destruction, of the collaborations.The results show that value is both co-created and co-destroyed in the collaborative processes. The main conclusions are: (i) it is difficult to define value co-creation and co-destruction when the boundaries between collaborating communities are complex; (ii) when boundaries are complex, collaboration requires complex IS artifacts; (iii) the risk of co-destruction outcomes increases with boundary complexity. Finally, the article demonstrates that sociomaterial boundary objects provide a suitable theoretical framework for investigations of value co-creation and co-destruction through IS artifacts in e-government.

Keyword
value co-creation, value co-destruction, boundary object, critical realism, e-government, IS artifact
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-142562 (URN)10.1016/j.giq.2017.08.001 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-05-02 Created: 2017-05-02 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
7. Re-Visiting IS Design Science Artifacts: Making a Case for Critical Realism
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Re-Visiting IS Design Science Artifacts: Making a Case for Critical Realism
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2017), IEEE Computer Society, 2017, 4675-4684 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper critical realism is suggested as a suitable philosophical assumption to guide a separate, stand-alone retrospective evaluation of design science projects and artifacts. A main contribution of the paper is to argue that knowledge can be gained in retrospective evaluations of design science projects regardless of the success or nonsuccess of the project itself. Thereby, retrospective evaluation complements current evaluations that are mostly means-end focused. The argumentation is supported through re-visiting two e-government design science projects, which can be considered both as failures and successes depending on the framing. Critical realism puts focus on knowing through making and widens the use of design science in areas where utility is not the main goal. Future research should focus on providing more details on how a critical realism retrospective in design science should be carried out.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2017
Keyword
Critical Realism, Design Science, Retrospective, Evaluation
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-136599 (URN)10.24251/HICSS.2017.570 (DOI)978-0-9981331-0-2 (ISBN)
Conference
50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Hilton Waikoloa Village, USA, January 4 - 7, 2017
Available from: 2016-12-12 Created: 2016-12-12 Last updated: 2017-11-30

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