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Model-predicted occurrence of multiple pharmaceuticals in Swedish surface waters and their flushing to the Baltic Seat
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
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Number of Authors: 7
2017 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 223, 595-604 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An exposure assessment for multiple pharmaceuticals in Swedish surface waters was made using the STREAM-EU model. Results indicate that Metformin (27 ton/y), Paracetamol (6.9 ton/y) and Ibuprofen (2.33 ton/y) were the drugs with higher amounts reaching the Baltic Sea in 2011. 35 of the studied substances had more than 1 kg/y of predicted flush to the sea. Exposure potential given by the ratio amount of the drug exported to the sea/amount emitted to the environment was higher than 50% for 7 drugs (Piperacillin, Lorazepam, Metformin, Hydroxycarbamide, Hydrochlorothiazide, Furosemide and Cetirizine), implying that a high proportion of them will reach the sea, and below 10% for 27 drugs, implying high catchment attenuation. Exposure potentials were found to be dependent of persistency and hydrophobicity of the drugs. Chemicals with Log D > 2 had exposure potentials <10% regardless of their persistence. Chemicals with Log D < 2 had exposure potentials >35% with higher ratios typically achieved for longer half-lives. For Stockholm urban area, 17 of the 54 pharmaceuticals studied had calculated concentrations higher than 10 ng/L. Model agreement with monitored values had an r(2) = 0.62 for predicted concentrations and an r2 = 0.95 for predicted disposed amounts to sea.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 223, 595-604 p.
Keyword [en]
Pharmaceuticals contamination, Baltic sea, Swedish rivers, Modelling, STREAM-EU
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-142393DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.01.062ISI: 000397359500063PubMedID: 28153413OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-142393DiVA: diva2:1092897
Available from: 2017-05-04 Created: 2017-05-04 Last updated: 2017-05-04Bibliographically approved

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Lindim, ClaudiaCousins, I. T.
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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
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