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Adrenoceptors promote glucose uptake into adipocytes and muscle by an insulin-independent signaling pathway involving mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
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Number of Authors: 5
2017 (English)In: Pharmacological Research, ISSN 1043-6618, E-ISSN 1096-1186, Vol. 116, 87-92 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Uptake of glucose into skeletal muscle and adipose tissue plays a vital role in metabolism and energy balance. Insulin released from beta-islet cells of the pancreas promotes glucose uptake in these target tissues by stimulating translocation of CLUT4 transporters to the cell surface. This process is complex, involving signaling proteins including the mechanistic (or mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Akt that intersect with multiple pathways controlling cell survival, growth and proliferation. mTOR exists in two forms, mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 has been intensively studied, acting as a key regulator of protein and lipid synthesis that integrates cellular nutrient availability and energy balance. Studies on mTORC2 have focused largely on its capacity to activate Akt by phosphorylation at Ser473, however recent findings demonstrate a novel role for mTORC2 in cellular glucose uptake. For example, agonists acting at beta(2)-adrenoceptors (ARs) in skeletal muscle or beta(3)-ARs in brown adipose tissue increase glucose uptake in vitro and in vivo via mechanisms dependent on mTORC2 but not Akt. In this review, we will focus on the signaling pathways downstream of beta-ARs that promote glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and brown adipocytes, and will highlight how the insulin and adrenergic pathways converge and interact in these cells. The identification of insulin-independent mechanisms that promote glucose uptake should facilitate novel treatment strategies for metabolic disease.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 116, 87-92 p.
Keyword [en]
mTOR, Adrenoceptor, Glucose uptake, Akt, Skeletal muscle, Brown adipocyte
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-142551DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2016.12.022ISI: 000395215800013PubMedID: 28025104OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-142551DiVA: diva2:1093189
Available from: 2017-05-05 Created: 2017-05-05 Last updated: 2017-05-05Bibliographically approved

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