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Methylphenidate, modafinil, and caffeine for cognitive enhancement in chess: A double-blind, randomised controlled trial
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
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Number of Authors: 13
2017 (English)In: European Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0924-977X, E-ISSN 1873-7862, Vol. 27, no 3, 248-260 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stimulants and caffeine have been proposed for cognitive enhancement by healthy subjects. This study investigated whether performance in chess - a competitive mind game requiring highly complex cognitive skills - can be enhanced by methylphenidate, modafinil or caffeine. In a phase IV, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 39 male chess players received 2 x 200 mg modafinil, 2 x 20 mg methylphenidate, and 2 x 200 mg caffeine or placebo in a 4 x 4 crossover design. They played twenty 15-minute games during two sessions against a chess program (Fritz 12; adapted to players' strength) and completed several neuropsychological tests. Marked substance effects were observed since all three substances significantly increased average reflection time per game compared to placebo resulting in a significantly increased number of games lost on time with all three treatments. Treatment effects on chess performance were not seen if all games (n=3059) were analysed. Only when controlling for game duration as well as when excluding those games lost on time, both modafinil and methylphenidate enhanced chess performance as demonstrated by significantly higher scores in the remaining 2876 games compared to placebo. In conjunction with results from neuropsychological testing we conclude that modifying effects of stimulants on complex cognitive tasks may in particular result from more reflective decision making processes. When not under time pressure, such effects may result in enhanced performance. Yet, under time constraints more reflective decision making may not improve or even have detrimental effects on complex task performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 27, no 3, 248-260 p.
Keyword [en]
Cognitive enhancement, Chess, Stimulants, Methylphenidate, Modafinil, Caffeine
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology) Neurology Pharmaceutical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-142704DOI: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2017.01.006ISI: 000396971100005PubMedID: 28119083OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-142704DiVA: diva2:1093191
Available from: 2017-05-05 Created: 2017-05-05 Last updated: 2017-05-05Bibliographically approved

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Gränsmark, PatrikGerdes, Christer
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CiteExportLink to record
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