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Two New Calcium-rich Gap Transients in Group and Cluster Environments
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
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Number of Authors: 23
2017 (English)In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 836, no 1, 60Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present the Palomar Transient Factory discoveries and the photometric and spectroscopic observations of PTF11kmb and PTF12bho. We show that both transients have properties consistent with the class of calcium-rich gap transients, specifically lower peak luminosities and rapid evolution compared to ordinary supernovae, and a nebular spectrum dominated by [Ca II] emission. A striking feature of both transients is their host environments: PTF12bho is an intracluster transient in the Coma Cluster, while PTF11kmb is located in a loose galaxy group, at a physical offset similar to 150 kpc from the most likely host galaxy. Deep Subaru imaging of PTF12bho rules out an underlying host system to a limit of M-R > -8.0 mag, while Hubble Space Telescope imaging of PTF11kmb reveals a marginal counterpart that, if real, could be either a background galaxy or a globular cluster. We show that the offset distribution of Ca-rich gap transients is significantly more extreme than that seen for SNe Ia or even short-hard gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs). Thus, if the offsets are caused by a kick, they require higher kick velocities and/or longer merger times than sGRBs. We also show that almost all Ca-rich transients found to date are in group and cluster environments with elliptical host galaxies, indicating a very old progenitor population; the remote locations could partially be explained by these environments having the largest fraction of stars in the intragroup/intracluster light following galaxy-galaxy interactions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 836, no 1, 60
Keyword [en]
supernovae: general, supernovae: individual (PTF11kmb, PTF12bho, PTF10hcw, SN 2005E)
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-142510DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/836/1/60ISI: 000397304500012OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-142510DiVA: diva2:1094715
Available from: 2017-05-10 Created: 2017-05-10 Last updated: 2017-05-10Bibliographically approved

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Hangard, LauraFremling, Christoffer
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