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Estimation of acute toxicity by using the differentiated neuronal progenitor C17.2 cell model
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6662-0868
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The authorities in Europe and United States request information regarding possible toxicity for substances that are produced in one tonne or more per year. Estimation of acute systemic toxicity is conducted in vivo using mice or rats. These tests can be time consuming, costly, unethical, and in some cases irrelevant due to the lack of similarity between humans and rodents. It has been proposed that determining general cytotoxicity together with more tissue-specific effects assessed by using in vitro test systems, e.g. reflecting adverse structure or function in the nervous system, can be an alternative approach to the in vivo tests. Neurotoxicity studies in vitro can be performed by using primary cell cultures from fresh tissue or established cell lines, the latter being often preferred as they are beneficial both economically and ethically.

Here, I present a murine neural progenitor cell line called C17.2 with the potential to differentiate to a mixed culture of both neurons and astrocytes. The differentiation process was examined using 3 different media compositions and 3 different exposures, totally 9 different scenarios. After 7 days in culture with DMEM/F-12 medium containing N2 supplements and 10 ng/mL nerve growth factor and 10 ng/mL brain derived neurotrophic factor, the culture contained two morphological distinguishable cell types, assumed to be neurons and astrocytes. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analyses were performed which confirmed the presence of neurons and astrocytes in the differentiated cultures. The mRNA and protein levels of the neuronal marker bIII-tubulin and the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were up-regulated during differentiation, while the progenitor cell marker nestin was down-regulated.

To further investigate how this differentiated neural cell model responded to neurotoxic and non-neurotoxic substances, cell membrane potential (CMP) and mRNA expression of bIII-tubulin, GFAP and heat shock protein-32 were examined after exposure to nicotine, atropine, strychnine, ethanol, digoxin, and acetylsalicylic acid. The concentrations that induced effects on the CMP and biomarker expression were compared to general cytotoxicity (Inhibitory Concentration 50%) determined by the neutral red uptake assay in a mouse fibroblast 3T3 cell line, i.e. the 3T3/NRU assay. The CMP assay showed that nicotine, atropine and strychnine exposure induced depolarisation of the cell membrane. However, no effect on the CMP was seen when the cells were treated with acetylsalicylic acid, digoxin, and ethanol at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Alternation in the mRNA expression levels for one of the three biomarkers was seen at non-cytotoxic concentrations for all the compounds that induced acute toxicity by neuronal modes of action, i.e. nicotine, atropine and strychnine. No significant alteration was seen in any of the biomarker mRNA levels when the differentiated C17.2 cells were exposed to compounds that do not induce acute toxicity by neuronal modes of action, i.e. digoxin and acetylsalicylic acid and ethanol.

In conclusion, acute toxicity, which could be induced by neuronal modes of action, may be detected in the differentiated C17.2 cell model by using CMP and gene expression biomarkers as endpoints. The simple cell culture requirements for culturing and differentiating the C17.2 cells into a mixed culture of neurons and astrocytes, the robustness in toxicity read-out, and the cost-effectiveness of the assay make the C17.2 cell line attractive as a model for acute neurotoxicity studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Department of Neurochemistry, Stockholm University , 2017. , 58 p.
Keyword [en]
Neurotoxicity, C17.2, cell membrane potential, Optimisation culture condition
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Neurochemistry with Molecular Neurobiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-143247ISBN: 978-91-7649-884-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-143247DiVA: diva2:1103655
Presentation
2017-06-13, Heilbronnsalen, Svante Arrhenius väg 16B, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-05-30 Created: 2017-05-30 Last updated: 2017-05-22
List of papers
1. Optimisation of culture conditions for differentiation of C17.2 neural stem cells to be used for in vitro toxicity tests
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimisation of culture conditions for differentiation of C17.2 neural stem cells to be used for in vitro toxicity tests
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2013 (English)In: Toxicology in Vitro, ISSN 0887-2333, E-ISSN 1879-3177, Vol. 27, no 5, 1565-1569 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Here we present a multipotent neuronal progenitor cell line for toxicity testing as an alternative to primary cultures of mixed cell types from brain tissue. The v-myc immortalised C17.2 cell line, originally cloned from mouse cerebellar neural stem cells, were maintained as monolayer in cell culture dishes in DMEM supplemented with fetal calf serum, horse serum and antibiotics. Different media and exposure scenarios were used to induce differentiation. The optimal condition which generated mixed cultures of neurons and astrocytes included serum-free DMEM:F12 medium with N2 supplements, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor. The medium was changed every 3rd or 4th day to fresh N2 medium with supplements. After 7days, the culture contained two different morphological cell types, assumed to be neurons and glia cells. The presence of astrocytes and neurons in the culture was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot analyses, indicating increased mRNA and protein levels of the specific biomarkers glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and βIII-tubulin, respectively. Concomitantly, the expression of the neural progenitor cell marker nestin was down-regulated.

Keyword
C17.2 cell line, Neural progenitor cells, Differentiation, Neurotrophic factors
National Category
Cell Biology
Research subject
Neurochemistry with Molecular Neurobiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-83395 (URN)10.1016/j.tiv.2012.04.020 (DOI)000320686200018 ()22542584 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, K2011-79X-21373-03-6
Available from: 2012-12-10 Created: 2012-12-10 Last updated: 2017-05-30Bibliographically approved
2. Altered mRNA Expression and Cell Membrane Potential in the Differentiated C17.2 Cell Model as Indicators of Acute Neurotoxicity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Altered mRNA Expression and Cell Membrane Potential in the Differentiated C17.2 Cell Model as Indicators of Acute Neurotoxicity
2017 (English)In: Applied In Vitro ToxicologyArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Using general cytotoxicity assays in combination with in vitro tests for organ-specific toxicity has been proposed as an alternative approach to animal tests for estimation of acute systemic toxicity. Here, we present the C17.2 neural progenitor cell line as an option for estimation of acute neurotoxicity. The C17.2 cells were differentiated for 6 days in serum-free N2 medium with brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor to a mixed culture of neurons and astrocytes. The cells were then exposed to noncytotoxic concentrations of acetylsalicylic acid, atropine, digoxin, ethanol, nicotine, or strychnine for 48 hours and the mRNA levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein, βIII-tubulin, and heat shock protein 32 were analyzed as biomarkers for astrocytes, neurons, and cellular stress respectively. As a functional endpoint, the cell membrane potential (CMP) was monitored after acute addition of each compound to the differentiated C17.2 cells, by using the fluorescent FLIPR® membrane potential assay. Nicotine [3.2E-04 M], atropine [1.2E-05 M], or strychnine [6.4E-05 M] resulted in altered gene expression of at least one biomarker for each compound, indicating alerts for neurotoxicity. The three compounds also induced depolarization of the CMP at the lowest observed effect concentrations 9.5E-05 M of nicotine, 1.5E-05 M of atropine, and 6.9E-07 M of strychnine. The non-neurotoxic compounds acetylsalicylic acid, ethanol, and digoxin did neither affect the mRNA levels, nor the CMP. This study showed that the differentiated C17.2 cells might be useful for estimation of acute neurotoxicity by analyzing expression of mRNA biomarkers and CMP alterations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New Rochelle, NY, USA: Mary Ann Liebert, 2017
Keyword
acute neurotoxicity, astrocytes, C17.2 cells, cell membrane potential, HSP32, mRNA biomarkers, neuronal in vitro model, neurons
National Category
Other Natural Sciences
Research subject
Neurochemistry with Molecular Neurobiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-143229 (URN)10.1089/aivt.2016.0022 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 521-2010-2804
Available from: 2017-05-19 Created: 2017-05-19 Last updated: 2017-05-30Bibliographically approved

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