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Developing multilingual literacies in Sweden and Australia: Opportunities and challenges in mother tongue instruction and multilingual study guidance in Sweden and community language education in Australia
Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3262-178X
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis aims to learn about opportunities for and challenges to the development of multilingual literacies in three forms of education in Sweden and Australia that teach or draw on immigrant languages.  In Sweden mother tongue instruction and multilingual study guidance are in focus and in Australia, a community language school. Taking an ecological approach to the research sites, the thesis investigates how language ideologies, organization of the form of education and language practices impact on the development of multilingual literacies. A range of linguistic ethnographic data including 75 lesson observations, 48 interviews, field notes and photographs has been analyzed against the theoretical backdrop of the continua of biliteracy (Hornberger, 1989; Hornberger & Skilton-Sylvester, 2000), heteroglossia (Bakhtin, 1981) and emerging theories of translanguaging (García & Li, 2014) to investigate the questions. The thesis ties together the results of four interlocking case studies investigating the above-mentioned forms of education.

Study I analyses the syllabus for mother tongue instruction in Sweden and finds that while aligning with the overall values of the curriculum for the compulsory school, a hidden curriculum constrains implementation. In Study II, multilingual practices during multilingual study guidance in Sweden are analysed, and demonstrate how translanguaging helps recently arrived students reach the learning goals of subjects in the Swedish curriculum. In study III, systematic analysis of indexicals reveals contrasting language narratives about language and language development in and around a Vietnamese community language school in Australia. Study IV focuses on mother tongue instruction in Sweden and through analysis of audio-recordings of lessons, interviews and field notes, finds three dimensions of linguistic diversity infuse the subject. 

Opportunities for the development of multilingual literacies are created when there is equal access to spaces for developing literacies in different immigrant languages, within which language ideologies that recognize and build on the heteroglossic diversity of students’ linguistic repertoires dynamically inform the organization of education and classroom practices. Challenges are created when monoglossic ideologies restrict access to or ignore linguistic diversity and when there is a lack of dynamic engagement with implementation and organization. Basing organization, and classroom strategies around the linguistic reality of the students and the genres they need, benefits the development of multilingual literacies in both settings and can help students become resourceful language users (Pennycook, 2012b, 2014).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Language Education, Stockholm University , 2017. , p. 170
Series
Doktorsavhandlingar i språkdidaktik - Dissertations in Language Education ; 10
Keywords [en]
mother tongue instruction, community language schools, translanguaging, heteroglossia, narrative analysis, multilingual literacies, resourceful speakers, continua of biliteracy
Keywords [sv]
studiehandledning på modersmål, modersmålsundervisning
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Research subject
Language Education
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-144745ISBN: 978-91-7649-893-4 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7649-894-1 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-144745DiVA, id: diva2:1116085
Public defence
2017-09-08, G-salen, Arrheniuslaboratorierna, Svante Arrhenius väg 20 C, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2017-08-16 Created: 2017-06-27 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Mother Tongue Tuition in Sweden - Curriculum Analysis and Classroom Experience
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mother Tongue Tuition in Sweden - Curriculum Analysis and Classroom Experience
2013 (English)In: International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, ISSN 1307-9298, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 95-116Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The model of Mother Tongue Tuition (MTT) which has developed in Sweden since the 1970’s offers speakers of languages other than Swedish the opportunity to request tuition in their mother tongue, from kindergarten through to year 12. It is unique among the major immigrant-receiving countries of the world yet little is known about MTT and its syllabus outside of its Nordic context. This article examines the syllabus for MTT from two perspectives; firstly using the framework of Constructive Alignment, secondly from the perspective of what is hidden. The intended syllabus is revealed as well-aligned, but the hidden curriculum impedes successful enactment in many contexts. Examples from case studies in a larger on-going research project offer an alternate approach to syllabus implementation when the negative effects of the hidden curriculum are challenged. While highly context-specific, this model may represent a step in the right direction for implementation of the syllabus.

Keywords
Mother Tongue Tuition, Syllabus, Constructive Alignment, Hidden Curriculum
National Category
Languages and Literature
Research subject
Language Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-96592 (URN)
Available from: 2013-11-25 Created: 2013-11-25 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Multilingual study guidance in the Swedish compulsory school and the development of multilingual literacies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multilingual study guidance in the Swedish compulsory school and the development of multilingual literacies
2016 (English)In: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 115-142Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Helping recently arrived pupils learn the language of education in the countries they move to is a significant responsibility for schools in Sweden and other immigrant-receiving countries. Also important but often overlooked is the continuing development of the language(s) these pupils already speak and their value in learning majority languages and subjects. This article asks what the functions of multilingual practices during Multilingual Study Guidance are and how they help recently arrived pupils in the Swedish school reach the learning goals of subjects in the Swedish curriculum. A functional analysis of linguistic ethnographic data shows how using languages pupils understand to reformulate, explain, discuss and raise task, metalinguistic and sociocultural awareness, creates a temporary space for translanguaging, which facilitates subject knowledge development in Swedish and other languages. It is argued that recognition and expansion of this space has the potential to improve opportunities for recently arrived pupils’ on-going multilingual development.

Keywords
multilingual study guidance, translanguaging, continua of biliteracy, recent arrivals, Sweden, studiehandledning på modersmål, transpråkande
National Category
Languages and Literature
Research subject
Language Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-136858 (URN)
Available from: 2016-12-16 Created: 2016-12-16 Last updated: 2017-07-20Bibliographically approved
3. Monoglossic echoes in multilingual spaces: language narratives from a Vietnamese community language school in Australia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monoglossic echoes in multilingual spaces: language narratives from a Vietnamese community language school in Australia
2018 (English)In: Current Issues in Language Planning, ISSN 1466-4208, E-ISSN 1747-7506, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 42-61Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article reports on language narratives in the ecology of a Vietnamese community language school (VCLS) in Australia. The study takes a dialogical perspective, where the stories about language that informants in the research setting tell are understood to shape and be shaped by the contexts in which they are told. Systematic analysis of deictics, reported speech and evaluative indexicals in stories told during 19 interviews with 34 students, teachers and administrators (20 hours 53 mins) was conducted to investigate how informants talk about language and language use and how this impacts on the language learning environment in that context. The results show how narratives both echo and contest ideas about language and language planning in the wider context. The narrative of separate multilingualism echoes monolingual views of language, advocating separate spaces for the use and development of different languages. In contrast, the narrative of flexible multilingualism frames multilingual practices as a natural part of daily life and at the VCLS, but constrained in other spaces. The study illustrates the gap between multilingual practices and monolingual ideologies and approaches to language education. It contributes to the literature calling for revised approaches to language education planning and multilingualism in Australia.

Keywords
Multilingual practices, monolingual ideologies, language ecology, community language school, Vietnamese, Australia
National Category
Languages and Literature
Research subject
Language Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-144407 (URN)10.1080/14664208.2017.1337831 (DOI)000430716500004 ()
Available from: 2017-06-20 Created: 2017-06-20 Last updated: 2018-05-28Bibliographically approved
4. Heteroglossia in mother tongue instruction in Sweden and the development of multilingual literacies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heteroglossia in mother tongue instruction in Sweden and the development of multilingual literacies
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This article analyses connections between linguistic diversity in mother tongue instruction (MTI) in Sweden and the learning aims of the subject. Linguistic ethnographic data collected over 12 months in 13 schools were thematically analyzed into three heteroglossic categories which were then interpreted through the continua of biliteracy to investigate what relationships could be traced between linguistic diversity in MTI, heteroglossia and the development of multilingual literacies in the setting. Results show that MTI policies and planning respond to linguistic heterogeneity in the context. Heteroglossic discursive practices and diverse linguistic repertoires are reported on and observed in the MT classrooms. While heteroglossia is viewed as a resource for learning in some situations, in others it is regarded as an obstacle.  These results contribute to discussions on organizational and pedagogical approaches that work with rather than against heteroglossia, to enhance learning in MTI and potentially other forms of multilingual education. 

Keywords
heteroglossia, multilingual literacies, mother tongue instruction, Sweden
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Research subject
Language Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-144746 (URN)
Available from: 2017-06-27 Created: 2017-06-27 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved

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